02 de febrero de 2022

Powder Horn Lichens Clarified

Quotation from the Notes from this link: https://lichenportal.org/cnalh/taxa/index.php?taxon=53390&clid=1048

Lichen terms used in the quote, and their meaning:
thallus Not in the quote below. Lichens, whether tiny and dust-like or large and dinner-plate-like, or ribbon-like, or shrub-like, have the main body made of a stacked layer of cells called a "thallus". The thicker the stack, the more differentiated the cell layers tend to be - no surprises there.
squamule = small thallus: Note: All lichens have a thallus. The Cladonia species are small lichens and thus have small thalli, and lichenologists call these small thalli "squamules".
podetium (plural = podetia) You may know the word "podium", and a podetium might as well be called a podium [autocorrect strongly agrees - try writing the word "podetium" and see what happens!]. The Cladonia species of lichens hold/present their spore-bearing structures at the end of a podium, sorry, podetium. The shape of the podetium varies from species to species, and can be useful in identification.
corticate like rough tree bark
rugose furrowed, like corduroy cloth
soredia A botanist would use the term "gemmules", for soredia. Soredia (and gemmules) are packets of cells that are clones (have exactly the same genetic material) as the lichen (plant); each soredia (gemmule) is capable of growing into a new lichen (plant). Soredia (and gemmules) are a means by which the lichen (or plant) clones itself.
soralia A structure that produces soredia. The shape of the structure can be useful in identification.
farinose powdery texture of wheat flour
erumpent Eruptive; bursting forth through the surface. So why not just say eruptive?

"Cladonia coniocraea and C. ochrochlora are morphologically very similar, and some authors are inclined to unite them. The present treatment is provisional. The squamules of C. coniocraea are always deeply incised, whereas the margins of the squamules of C. ochrochlora can be nearly entire. Cladonia coniocraea is usually found without cups, but C. ochrochlora rarely lacks them completely. The base of the podetium in C. coniocraea is only thinly corticate, while the cortex of C. ochrochlora is thick, extends beyond the immediate base, and is often longitudinally rugose. The soredia of the present taxon are usually farinose, rarely occurring in small, diffuse soralia; soredia in C. ochrochlora are variable, but are usually larger than those of C. coniocraea, and often largely occur in well defined, erumpent soralia. The podetia of C. coniocraea are greenish rather than gray, fairly slender, usually not more than 1.5 mm diameter, and are usually straight. The podetia of C. ochrochlora have a grayish tint, are generally thicker, and are often somewhat branched and twisted (Hammer 1993)."

"The base of the podetium in C. coniocraea [Common Powderhorn] is only thinly corticate, while the cortex of C. ochrochlora is thick . . ."

Translation by yours truly . . .

The base of the horn-like podium in Common Powderhorn, Cladonia coniocraea has only a thin bark (is often smooth), while the bark of the Smooth-footed Powderhorn, C. ochrochlora is thick. Yes, you read that correctly, and yes, I translated it correctly. The Smooth-footed Powder Horn actually has a rough foot, whilst the Common Powderhorn tends to have a smooth foot. It is all clear as mud.

If a common name is to be helpful, it should be, well, helpful.

Anotado en 02 de febrero de 2022 a las 01:01 PM por mjpapay mjpapay

13 de noviembre de 2021

Rock Tripe Lichens, a Limited Guide

First published: 24 November 2021 not copyrighted, use as you wish Michael Papay
Most Recent Update: 17 April 2022

I have learned more about the Rock Tripe Family, and offer this limited guide to identifying some of them.

Upper Surface adorned by raised wart-like protuberances - Lasallia species

  • Lasallia papulosa (1) upper surface when dry in shades of gray, although the range of colors possible includes white, lavender, orange, near yellow; also, upper surface crowdedly adorned with raised wart-like protuberances; (2) underside is gray or gray-brown whether damp or dry https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100618252
  • Lasallia pennsylvanica (1) upper surface when dry a nearly uniform dull brown to dark brown ; also upper surface sparsley adorned (not crowdedly packed) with raised wart-like protuberances; when damp the upper surface is dull pea-green that looks almost greasy; (2) underside is black when false rhizines are present [they are layers of dead cells that only seem like rhizines] and becomes dull brown when the false rhizines have been shed; (3) peripheral edge of thallus of some specimens ruffled due to presence of what appear to be asexual reproductive structures known as Isidia; [recognition of the color range of the underside consolidates observations with upper surface color and texture as described above]

Ornamented-Surface Umbilicaria

  • Umbilicaria muhlenbergii (1) upper surface adorned by sunken dimples, especially at periphery, and some of the dimples contain gritty-surfaced black spheroids (apothecia in lichenological terms); almost unfailingly a very dark brown lichen when dry, and green when damp; (2) underside coarsely textured (not a uniform fine-grained near planar surface) https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/504634-Umbilicaria-muhlenbergii
  • Umbilicaria phaea (1) Upper surface smooth and entire, (not appearing like a sort of jigsaw puzzle of melded pieces), (lacks sunken dimples or raised warts), is dark brown when dry (like U. muhlenbergii ), and is adorned with black flat (usually), geometric in outline structures (apothecia) with concentric geometric lines within https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/125055-Umbilicaria-phaea
  • Umbilicaria torrefacta (1) Upper surface smooth but fissured appearing like a sort of jigsaw puzzle of melded pieces akin to fault lines at junctures of continental plates (lacks sunken dimples or raised warts), is usually dark brown when dry, but color can include frosty tans to white (like U. muhlenbergii ), and is adorned with black flat (usually), geometric in outline structures (apothecia) with concentric geometric lines within https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/233255-Umbilicaria-torrefacta
  • Umbilicaria hyperborea (1) Upper surface distinctly and abundantly blistered, otherwise somewhat similar to Umbilicaria phaea

Smooth-surface, un-adorned Umbilicaria (Upper surface smooth: not adorned with numerous raised wart-like protuberances, nor with sunken dimples, nor with tiny raised dots)

  • Umbilicaria mammulata Two color forms identifiable when dry: (a) the common dark tan to brown to dark brown; (b) the less common near-white, being light tan at the periphery and near-white at the center. (1) upper surface when damp is pea-green, drying to brown or sometimes a deep brown, outline of lichen usually irregular in shape; thallus lobes unequal; (2) underside black, very fine-grained ( very short false rhizines) https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100007990
  • Umbilicaria americana (1) upper surface when damp is light-green, drying to very white; surface at periphery sometimes peppered with small black dots; outline of intact lichen roughly circular, peripheral lobes regular in shape, usually only shallowly incised; (2) lower surface usually adorned with a thick short false rhizines [rhizine is a technical term for what are effectively roots of a lichen], giving the lower surface a somewhat shaggy appearance. Umbilicaria americana is known from non-acidic rocks, usually limestone or dolostone, but amphibolite and any non-acidic rock might, in theory, do. https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/182508-Umbilicaria-americana
  • Umbilicaria duesta Small rock tripe lichen, (1) dry surface deep brown, periphery with numerous black dots; upper surface fine granular texture; thalli small, usually crowded, generally curled under at edge and thus sort of ear-shaped, https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/182503-Umbilicaria-deusta

Dermatocarpon Rock Tripe Lichens (surface peppered with regular small dark dots)

A VERY HELPFUL PICTORIAL GUIDE : https://www.waysofenlichenment.net/lichens/Umbilicaria/

Anotado en 13 de noviembre de 2021 a las 02:17 PM por mjpapay mjpapay

13 de septiembre de 2021

***Solidago curtisii***

NOTE: As of 24 September 2021 I have differentiated, by observation and measurements, that
1) Solidago caesia has

  • inflorescence that comprises more than half the total stem, often as much as 3/4 of the stem
  • the internodes of the inflorescence separate the flowering portions
  • the widest non-basal leaf is less than 30mm wide, usually less than 25mm wide

2) Soidago curtisii has

  • inflorescence that comprises half or less of the total stem length
  • internodes that bear flowers are closely spaced, the flower so closely spaced as to present a flowering rod at the end of the stem
  • the widest non-basal leaf is more than 30mm wide

Of the 49, at present [13 September 2021] "Confirmed" observations of Solidago curtisii
1) only three have very narrow leaves:
a. https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/94330036 - very narrow toothed leaves
b. https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/32649260 - very narrow toothed leaves
c. https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/13941999 - very narrow toothed leaves

2) Of which only 1a. provides a view of the abaxial/lower leaf surface, and it is glaucous white https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/94330036

The glaucous white abaxial surface is very different from the green, non-glaucous, abaxial surface of the other Solidago curtisii observations.

I suggest that the combination of very narrow toothed leaves with glaucous abaxial surface is sufficiently distinct that it should be investigated as a separate or sub-set taxon from Solidago curtisii.

Anotado en 13 de septiembre de 2021 a las 07:57 PM por mjpapay mjpapay

12 de mayo de 2021

Flora of Deep River Trail, Moncure, North Carolina, part of the North Carolina Park System

Taxa observed by Michael Papay as of 19 June 2021

1st list = by Genus
2nd List = by Family & Common name, as per NC Parks system

1st LIST - by Genus. A corresponding iNaturalist observation provided.
Acer floridiana, Southern Sugar Maple, Sapindaceae/Aceraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72098268
Acer x freemanii, Freeman’s Maple, Sapindaceae/Aceraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73867304
Aesculus sylvatica, Painted Buckeye, Hippocastanaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72719261
Aira caryophyllea, Silver Hairgrass, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80724808
Allium ampeloprasum, Wild Leek, Liliaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/82906557
Allium canadense, Canadian Meadow Garlic, Liliaceae, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79304552
Amelanchier arborea, Serviceberry, Rosaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71724094
Andropogon gerardi, Big Bluestem, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80930173
Antennaria plantaginifolia, Plantain-leaved Pussytoes, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71726064
Arisaema triphyllum, Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Araceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78099249
Arnoglossum atriplicifolium, Pale Indian Plantain, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/82915663
Asimina parviflora, Small-flower Paw Paw, Annonaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77644473
Asplenium platyneuron, Ebony Spleenwort, Aspleniaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/70812633
Athyrium asplenioides, Southern Lady Fern, Aspidiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73397274

Bignonea capreolata, Cross Vine, Bignoniaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/70811815
Boehmeria cylindrica, False Nettle, Urticaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79308936
Botrypus virginicus, Rattlesnake Fern, Ophioglossaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73311328
Briza minor, Little Quaking-Grass, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79315026
Bromus pubescens, Hairy Woodland Brome, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/81192479

Cardamine angustata, Slender Toothwort, Brassicaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72937302
Cardamine bulbosa, Bulbous Cress, Brassicaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73306037
Cardamine hirsuta, Hairy Bittercress, Brassicaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71741356
Carduus nutans, Musk Thistle, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77639239
Carex atlantica, Prickly Bog Sedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79328387
Carex blanda, Eastern Woodland Sedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73400076
Carex crinita, Fringed Sedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78098167
Carex flaccosperma, Thin-fruited Sedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80612304
Carex hirsutella, Fuzzy Wuzzy Sedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77485644
Carex lurida, Sallow Sedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77648165
Carex communis, Fibrous-rooted Sedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/70779804
Carex complanata, Hirsute Sedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80613136
Carex glaucodea, Blue Sedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73827792
Carex leptalea, Brsitle-stalked Sedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79315228
Carex nigromarginata, Blackedge Sedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71739836
Carex pennsylvanica, Pennsylvania Sedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73396813
Carex rosea, Rosy Sedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80924400
Carex tribuloides, Blunt Broom Sedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79328291
Carex vulpinoidea, Fox Sedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80611322
Carya ovata, Shagbark Hickory, Juglandaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73952453
Carya tomentosa, Mockernut Hickory, Juglandaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73403522
Chaerophyllum procumbens, Spreading Chervil, Apiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78251183
Chasmanthium latifolium, Inland Woodoats, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72721599
Chasmanthium sessiliflorum, Longleaf Woodoats, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/82687801
Chimaphila maculata, Spotted Wintergreen, Ericaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71884948
Chrysogonum virginianum, Green-and-Gold, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80929065
Cirsium vulgare, Bull Thistle, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80609561
Claytonia virginica, Virginia Spring Beauty, Portulacaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72015666
Collinsia canadensis, Citronella Horse Balm, Lamiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/81192849
Commelina virginica, Virginia Dayflower, Commelinaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79807363
Conocephalum salebrosum, Snakewort, Conocephalaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73636067
Cornus florida, Flowering Dogwood, Cornaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73403039
Corydalis flavula, Pale Corydalis, Fumariaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71728181
Crataegus marshallii, Parsley Hawthorn, Rosaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73860072
Cyperus echinatus, Globe Flatsedge, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/82709899
Cypripedium acaule, Pink Lady’s Slipper Orchid, Orchidaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73951774
Cryptotaenia canadensis, Honewort, Apiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78247854
Cunila origanoides, Common Dittany, Lamiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/81191448
Cyclospermum leptophyllum, Marsh Parsley, Apiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/82909957

Dactylis glomerata, Orchard Grass, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80930725
Danthonia spicata, Poverty Oatgrass, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/70779886
Danthonia sericea, Silky Oatgrass, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77314141
Desmodium paniculatum, Panicled Ticktrefoil, Fabaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77651064
Dicanthelium clandestinum, Deertongue Grass, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78242906
Dicanthelium commutatum, Variable Bunch Grass, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/74050088
Dicanthelium laxiflorum, Open-flower Witchgrass, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77640435
Dicanthelium oligosanthes, Heller’s Rosette Grass, Pocaeae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/76306639
Dioscoria villosa, Wild Yam, Dioscoriaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/81364149
Diospyros virginiana, American Persimmon, Ebenaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71980345
Diphasiastrum digitatum, Fan Clubmoss, Lycopodaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73507867

Eleocharis obtusa, Blunt Spikerush, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80605892
Elephantopus carolineanus, Leafy Elephant's-Foot Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79315650
Elymus hystrix, Bottlebrush Grass, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/82918962
Elymus riparius, River Wild Rye, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/83325798
Endodeca serpentaria, Virginia Snakeroot, Aristolochiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77642141
Erechtites hieraciifolius, Fireweed, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/82690352
Erigeron annuus, Annula Fleabane, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/83640249
Erigeron strigosus, Daisy Fleabane, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79303339
Eupatorium capillifolium, Dogfennel, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/82908278

Fraxinus americana, White Ash, Oleaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72931555
Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Green Ash, Oleaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73849347

Galium aparine, Catchweed Bedstraw, Rubiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71728547
Galium circaezans, Licorice Bedstraw, Rubiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/76321113
Galium obtusum ssp. filifolium, Carolina Bedstraw, Rubiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78102650
Galium triflorum, Fragrant Bedstraw, Rubiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72938073
Geranium carolinianum, Carolina Crane’s-Bill, Gerinaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73507315
Geranium maculatum, Wild Geranium, Gerinaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73031944
Glechoma hederacea, Ground-Ivy, Lamiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71728994
Gleditsia triacanthos, Honey Locust, Fabaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/83270553
Glyceria striata, Fowl Mannagrass, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78335619
Goodyera pubescens, Downy Rattlesnake Plantain, Orchidaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/70811226

Helenium amarum, Bitterweed, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80609046
Hepatica americana, Round-lobe Hepatica, Ranunculaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72012982
Hesperostipa spartea, Porcupine Needlegrass, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77312142
Heuchera americana, American Coralroot, Saxifragaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72721707
Hexastylis arifolia, Little Brown Jug, Aristolochiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73952157
Hexastylis minor, Little Heartleaf, Aristolochiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72014881
Hieracium marianum, Maryland Hawkweed, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71725696
Houstonia caerulea, Azure Bluets, Rubiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71977808
Houstonia purpurea, Summer Bluet, Rubiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/76309900
Hypericum hypericoides, St. Andrew’s Cross, Hypericaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/70811408
Hypoxis hirsuta, Yellow Star Grass, Amaryllidaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73859935

Ipomoea purpurea, Common Morning-Glory, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78230121
Iris cristata, Crested Iris, Iridaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73306216
Isoetes sp., Quillwort, Isoetaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79807043
Isotria medeoloides, Small Whorled Pogonia, Orchidaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80929428

Juglans nigra, Eastern Black Walnut, Juglandaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72378845
Juncus effusus, Soft Rush, Juncaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77640260
Juniperus virginiana, Eastern Redcedar, Cupressaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73403171

Krigia dandelion, Potato Dandelion, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77485523

Lamium purpureum, Red Dead Nettle, Lamiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71728388
Leucanthemum vulgare, Oxeye Daisy, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/76323371
Lobelia siphilitica, Great Blue Lobelia, Campanulaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79806481
Lobelia spicata, Pale-spiked Lobelia, Campanulaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80928820
Luzula acuminata, Hairy Woodrush, Juncaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72012272
Luzula echinata, Hedgehog Woodrush, Juncaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72012427
Lycopus uniflorus, Northern Bugleweed, Lamiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79327893

Maianthemum racemosum, False Solomon’s Seal, Liliaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73475723
Melica mutica, Two-flowered Melicgrass, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72720363
Melilotus officinalis, Yellow Sweetclover, Fabaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/82917416
Monotropa hypopitys, Pinesap, Ericaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/81180111
Morus rubra, Red Mulberry, Moraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80921986
Myosotis macorsperma, Large-seeded Forget-me-not, Boriginaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72946012
Myosotis verna, Early Forget-Me-Not, Boriginaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/76313458

Nabalus sp., Rattlesnakeroot, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73827709
Nemophila aphylla, Smallflower Baby Blue Eyes, Hydrophyllaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71728836
Nothoscordum bivalve, Crow Poison, Liliaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72706748
Nuttallanthus canadensis, Blue Toadflax, Plantaginaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77639614
Nyssa sylvatica, Black Tupelo, Nyssaceae

Oenothera fruiticosa, Narrow-leaved Sundrops, Onagraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78103286
Osmunda specatbilis, American Royal Fern, Osmundaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/74402481
Osmundastrum cinnamomeum, Cinnamon Fern, Osmundaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/74401738
Oxalis corniculata, Creeping Woodsorrel, Oxalidaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73399744
Oxalis grandis, Great Yellow Woodsorrel, Oxalidaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72770581
Oxalis stricta, Upright Yellow Woodsorrel, Oxalidaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79803010
Oxalis violacea, Violet Woodsorrel, Oxalidaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73637838

Parathelypteris noveboracensis, New York Fern, Thelypteridaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/76305157
Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Virginia Creeper, Vitaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80607351
Penstemon laevigatus, Eastern Smooth Beardtongue, Plantaginaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79300406
Phegopteris hexagonoptera, Broad Beech Fern, Thelypteridaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80902026
Phoroadendron leucocarpum, American Mistletoe, Loranthaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72381830
Phytolacca americana, Pokeweed, Phytolaccaecae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73252137
Plantago virginica, Dwarf Plantain, Plantaginaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73400322
Pleopeltis michauxiana, Resurrection Fern, Polypodiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73859182
Poa autumnalis, Autumn Bluegrass, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72376252
Podophylum peltatum, Mayapple, Berberidaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73515888
Polygala curtissii, Nuttall's Milkwort, Polygalaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/82686668
Polygonatum biflorum, Smooth Solomon’s Seal, Liliaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73311130
Porella platyphylla, Wall Scalewort, Porellacaeae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72101181
Potentilla canadensis, Dwarf Mock Strawberry, Rosaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73135370
Potentilla simplex, Common Mock Strawberry, Rosaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71978182
Prunella vulgaris, Common Selfheal, Lamiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/83639896
Pteridium aquilinum pseudocaudatum, Tailed Bracken, Pteridaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71719537
Pteridium latisculum, Eagle Bracken, Pteridaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/70817922
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium, Narrowleaf Mountainmint, Lamicaeae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/81181287
Pyrrhopappus carolinianus, Carolina Desert-Chickory, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/82906974

Quercus alba, White Oak, Fagaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72714440
Quercus coccinea, Scarlet Oak, Fagaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71797336
Quercus falcata, Southern Red Oak, Fagaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72381028
Quercus nigra, Water Oak, Fagaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71798104
Quercus phellos, Willow Oak, Fagaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/74528838
Quercus rubra, Northern Red Oak, Fagaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73403901
Quercus stellata, Post Oak, Fagaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/74619067

Ranunculus arbortivus, Small-flower Buttercup, Ranunculaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72938653
Ranunculus recurvatus, Hooked Buttercup, Ranunculaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/74519700
Ranunculus repens, Creeping Buttercup, Ranunculaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73399155
Ranunculus sardous, Hairy Buttercup, Ranunculaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77325094
Rhododendron periclymenoides, Pinxter Flower, Ericaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/74401022
Ricasolia quercizans, Smooth Lungwort, Lobariaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73635846
Robinia pseudoacacia, Black Locust, Fabaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79315495
Rosa carolina, Carolina Rose, Rosaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/82685549

Salvia lyrata, Lyre-leaf Sage, Lamiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73860246
Sambucus canadensis, American Black Elderberry, Caprifoliaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/70811252
Samolus parviflorus, Seaside Brookweed, Primulaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73397634
Sanguinaria canadensis, Bloodroot, Papaveraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72717980
Sanicula canadensis, Black Snakeroot, Apiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73031874
Saururus cernuus, Lizard’s Tail, Saururaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73305168
Sassafrass albidum, Sassifrass, Lauraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/74519278
Sceptridium biternatum, Sparse-lobed Grapefern, Ophioglassaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/74518172
Scleria oligantha, Littlehead Nutrush, Cyperaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/82706204
Scutellaria elliptica, Hairy Skullcap, Lamiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/81189480
Scutellaria integrifolia, Helmet Skullcap, Lamiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79812619
Selaginella apoda, Selaginellaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73397444
Senecio vulgaris, Common Groundsel, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71726798
Sisyrinchium angistifolium, Narrow-leaved Blue-eyed Grass, Iridaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/76314587
Smilax bon-nox, Saw Greenbrair, Liliaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72011822
Smilax rotundifolia, Liliaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72717876
Solanum carolinense, Carolina Horsenettle, Solanaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79801346
Solidago caesei, Bluestem Goldenrod, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79332617
Sorghastrum nutans, Indiangrass, Pocaeae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79303728
Sphenopholis filiformis, Longleaf Wedgescale, Poaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79873643
Stellaria pubera, Star Chickweed, Caryophyllaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73399007
Stenanthium gramineum, Featherbells, Melanthiaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/83649452

Thalictrum thalictroides, Rue Anemone, Ranunculaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73636394
Tiarella cordifolia, Foamflower, Saxifragaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73032020
Tilia americana, Basswood, Malvaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80610353
Trifolium arvense, Rabbit-foot Clover, Fabaecae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79021427
Trifolium dubium, Lesser Hop Trefoil, Fabaecae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79026472
Trifolium pratense, Red Clover, Fabaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80931543

Ulmus alata, Winged Elm, Ulmaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/70780200
Ulmus rubra, Slippery Elm, Ulmaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/70811155
Urtica dioica, Stinging Nettle, Urticaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79308171
Uvularia perfoliata, Perfoliate Bellwort, Liliacaeaehttps://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73507698
Uvularia sessilifolia, Sessile Belwort, Liliaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72547294


Vaccinium tenellum, Southern Dwarf Blueberry, Ericaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73634979
Valerianella locusta, Common Cornsalad, Caprifoliaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77324850
Verbascum thapsus, Great Mullein, Scrophulariaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72947725
Verbesina virginica, Frostweed, Asteraceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79315797
Viburnum prunifolium, Blackhaw, Caprifoliaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72940242
Viola bicolor, American Field Pansy, Violaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71729100
Viola cucullata, Marsh Violet, Violaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71729263
Viola hirsutula, Southern Wood Violet, Violaceae, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72720699
Viola palmata, Early Blue Violet, Violcaeae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/74049145
Viola palmata ssp. sororia https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72720699
Viola primulifolia, Primrose-leaved Violet, Violaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79328229
Viola sororei, Common Blue Violet, Violaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/74049034
Vitis rotundifolia, Muscadine Vitaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73134288

Woodwardia areolata, Netted Chain Fern, Blechnaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72095326

Yucca filamentosa, Common Yucca, Liliaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72947388

Zephyranthes atamasco, Atamasco Lily, Amaryllidaceae https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73951253

2nd LIST - by Family & Common Name as per NC Park system
Freeman’s Maple, Acer x freemanii
Southern Sugar Maple, Acer floridana

Atamascoa Lily, Zephyranthes atamasco
Yellow Star Grass, Hypoxis hirsuta

Small-flower Paw Paw, Asimina parviflora, Annonaceae

Black Snakeroot, Sanicula canadensis
Honewort, Cryptotaenia canadensis
Large-fruited Sanicle, Sanicula trifoliate
Marsh Parsley, Cyclospermum leptophyllum
Spreading Chervil, Chaerophyllum procumbens

Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Arisaema triphyllum

Little Brown Jug, Hexastylis arifolia
Little Heartleaf, Hexastylis minor
Virginia Snakeroot, Endodeca serpentaria

Southern Lady Fern, Athyrium asplenioides

Ebony Spleenwort, Asplenium platyneuron, Aspleniaceae

Annula Fleabane, Erigeron annuus
Bitterweed, Helenium amarum
Bluestem Goldenrod, Solidago caesei
Bull Thistle, Cirsium vulgare
Carolina Desert-Chickory, Pyrrhopappus carolinianus
Common Groundsel, Senecio vulgaris
Daisy Fleabane, Erigeron strigosus
Dogfennel, Eupatorium capillifolium
Fireweed, Erechtites hieraciifolius
Frostweed, Verbesina virginica
Green-and-Gold, Chrysogonum virginianum
Leafy Elephant's-Foot, Elephantopus carolineanus
Maryland Hawkweed, Hieracium marianum
Musk Thistle, Carduus nutans
Oxeye Daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare
Pale Indian Plantain, Arnoglossum atriplicifolium
Plantain-leaved Pussytoes, Antennaria plantaginifolia
Potato Dandelion, Krigia dandelion
Rattlesnakeroot, Nabalus sp., Asteraceae

Mayapple, Podophylum peltatum

Cross Vine, Bignonea capreolata

Netted Chain Fern, Woodwardia areolata

Early Forget-Me-Not, Myosotis verna
Large-seeded Forget-me-not, Myosotis laxa

Bulbous Cress, Cardamine bulbosa
Hairy Bittercress, Cardamine hirsuta
Slender Toothwort, Cardamine angustata

Great Blue Lobelia, Lobelia siphilitica
Pale-spiked Lobelia, Lobelia spicata

American Black Elderberry, Sambucus Canadensis
Blackhaw, Viburnum prunifolium
Common Cornsalad, Valerianella locusta

Star Chickweed, Stellaria pubera

Virginia Dayflower, Commelina virginica

Snakewort, Conocephalum salebrosum

Common Morning-Glory, Ipomoea purpurea

Flowering Dogwood, Cornus florida

Eastern Redcedar, Juniperus virginiana

Blackedge Sedge, Carex nigromarginata
Blue Sedge, Carex glaucodea
Blunt Broom Sedge, Carex tribuloides
Blunt Spikerush, Eleocharis obtusa
Bristle-stalked Sedge, Carex leptalea
Eastern Woodland Sedge, Carex blanda
Fibrous-rooted Sedge, Carex communis
Fox Sedge, Carex vulpinoidea
Fringed Sedge, Carex crinita,
Fuzzy Wuzzy Sedge, Carex hirsutella
Globe Flatsedge, Cyperus echinatus
Hirsute Sedge, Carex complanata
Littlehead Nutrush, Scleria oligantha
Pennsylvania Sedge, Carex pennsylvanica
Prickly Bog Sedge, Carex atlantica
Rosy Sedge, Carex rosea
Sallow Sedge, Carex lurida, Cyperaceae
Thin-fruited Sedge, Carex flaccosperma

Wild Yam, Dioscoria villosa

American Persimmon, Diospyros virginiana

Pinesap, Monotropa hypopitys
Pinxter Flower, Rhododendron periclymenoides
Southern Dwarf Blueberry, Vaccinium tenellum
Spotted Wintergreen, Chimaphila maculata

Black Locust, Robinia pseudoacacia
Honey Locust Gleditsia triacanthos
Lesser Hop Trefoil, Trifolium dubium
Panicled Ticktrefoil, Desmodium paniculatum
Rabbit-foot Clover, Trifolium arvense
Red Clover, Trifolium pratense
Yellow Sweetclover, Melilotus officinalis

Northern Red Oak, Quercus rubra
Post Oak, Quercus stellata
Scarlet Oak, Quercus coccinea
Southern Red Oak, Quercus falcata
Water Oak, Quercus nigra
White Oak, Quercus albaWillow Oak, Quercus phellos

Pale Corydalis, Corydalis flavula

Carolina Crane’s-Bill, Geranium carolinianum
Wild Geranium, Geranium maculatum, Gerinaceae

Painted Buckeye, Aesculus sylvatica

Smallflower Baby Blue Eyes, Nemophila aphylla

St. Andrew’s Cross, Hypericum hypericoides

Crested Iris, Iris cristata
Narrow-leaved Blue-eyed Grass, Sisyrinchium angistifolium

Quillwort., Isoetes sp.

Eastern Black Walnut, Juglans nigra
Mockernut Hickory, Carya tomentosa
Shagbark Hickory, Carya ovata

Hairy Woodrush, Luzula acuminata
Hedgehog Woodrush, Luzula echinata
Soft Rush, Juncus effusus

Citronella Horse Balm, Collinsia canadensis
Common Dittany, Cunila origanoides
Common Selfheal, Prunella vulgaris
Ground-Ivy, Glechoma hederacea
Hairy Skullcap, Scutellaria elliptica
Helmet Skullcap, Scutellaria integrifolia
Lyre-leaf Sage, Salvia lyrata
Narrowleaf Mountainmint, Pycnanthemum tenuifolium
Northern Bugleweed, Lycopus uniflorus
Red Dead Nettle, Lamium purpureum

Sassifrass, Sassafrass albidum

Canadian Meadow Garlic, Allium canadense
Crow Poison, Nothoscordum bivalve
False Solomon’s Seal, Maianthemum racemosum
Hairy Yucca, Yucca filamentosa
Perfoliate Bellwort, Uvularia perfoliata
Saw Greenbrair, Smilax bon-nox
Sessile Belwort, Uvularia sessilifolia, Liliaceae
Smilax rotundifolia
Smooth Solomon’s Seal, Polygonatum biflorum
Wild Leek, Allium ampeloprasum

Smooth Lungwort, Ricasolia quercizans, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73635846

American Mistletoe, Phoroadendron leucocarpum

Fan Clubmoss, Diphasiastrum digitatum

Basswood, Tilia americana

Featherbells, Stenanthium gramineum

Red Mulberry, Morus rubra

Black Tupelo, Nyssa sylvatica

Green Ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Oleaceae
White Ash, Fraxinus americana

Narrow-leaved Sundrops, Oenothera fruiticosa, Onagraceae

Rattlesnake Fern, Botrypus virginicus
Sparse-lobed Grapefern, Sceptridium biternatum

Downy Rattlesnake Plantain, Goodyera pubescens
Pink Lady’s Slipper Orchid, Cypripedium acaule
Small Whorled Pogonia, Isotria medeoloides

Cinnamon Fern, Osmundastrum cinnamomeum
American Royal Fern, Osmunda specatbilis

Creeping Woodsorrel, Oxalis corniculata
Great Yellow Woodsorrel, Oxalis grandis
Upright Yellow Woodsorrel, Oxalis stricta
Violet Woodsorrel, Oxalis violacea

Bloodroot, Sanguinaria canadensis

Pokeweed, Phytolacca americana

Blue Toadflax, Nuttallanthus Canadensis
Dwarf Plantain, Plantago virginica
Eastern Smooth Beardtongue, Penstemon laevigatus,

Autumn Bluegrass, Poa autumnalis
Big Bluestem, Andropogon gerardi
Bottlebrush Grass, Elymus hystrix
Deertongue Grass, Dicanthelium clandestinum
Fowl Mannagrass, Glyceria striata
Hairy Woodland Brome, Bromus pubescens
Heller’s Rosette Grass, Dicanthelium oligosanthes
Indiangrass, Sorghastrum nutans
Inland Woodoats, Chasmanthium latifolium
Little Quaking-Grass, Briza minor
Longleaf Wedgescale, Sphenopholis filiformis
Longleaf Woodoats, Chasmanthium sessiliflorum
Open-flower Witchgrass, Dicanthelium laxiflorum
Orchard Grass, Dactylis glomerata
Porcupine Needlegrass, Hesperostipa spartea
Poverty Oatgrass, Danthonia spicata
River Wild Rye, Elymus riparius
Silky Oatgrass, Danthonia sericea
Silver Hairgrass, Aira caryophyllea
Two-flowered Melicgrass, Melica mutica
Variable Bunch Grass, Dicanthelium commutatum

Curtiss's Milkwort, Polygala curtissii

Resurrection Fern, Pleopeltis michauxiana

Wall Scalewort, Porella platyphylla

Virginia Spring Beauty, Claytonia virginica

Seaside Brookweed, Samolus parviflorus

Eagle Bracken, Pteridium latisculum
Tailed Bracken, Pteridium aquilinum pseudocaudatum

Creeping Buttercup, Ranunculus repens
Hairy Buttercup, Ranunculus sardous
Hooked Buttercup, Ranunculus recurvatus
Round-lobe Hepatica, Hepatica americana
Rue Anemone, Thalictrum thalictroides
Small-flower Buttercup, Ranunculus arbortivus

Carolina Rose, Rosa carolina
Common Mock Strawberry, Potentilla simplex
Dwarf Mock Strawberry, Potentilla Canadensis
Parsley Hawthorn, Crataegus marshallii
Serviceberry, Amelanchier arborea

Azure Bluets, Houstonia caerulea
Carolina Bedstraw, Galium obtusum ssp. filifolium
Catchweed Bedstraw, Galium aparine
Fragrant Bedstraw, Galium triflorum
Licorice Bedstraw, Galium circaezans
Summer Bluet, Houstonia purpurea

Acer floridiana, Southern Sugar Maple
Acer x freemanii, Freeman’s Maple

Lizard’s Tail, Saururus cernuus

American Coralroot, Heuchera americana
Foamflower, Tiarella cordifolia

Great Mullein, Verbascum Thapsus

Selaginella apoda

Carolina Horsenettle, Solanum carolinense

Broad Beech Fern, Phegopteris hexagonoptera
New York Fern, Parathelypteris noveboracensis

Slippery Elm, Ulmus rubra
Winged Elm, Ulmus alata

False Nettle, Boehmeria cylindrica
Stinging Nettle, Urtica dioica

American Field Pansy, Viola bicolor
Common Blue Violet, Viola sororei
Early Blue Violet, Viola palmata
Marsh Violet, Viola cucullata
Primrose-leaved Violet, Viola primulifolia
Southern Wood Violet, Viola hirsutula
Viola palmata ssp. sororia

Muscadine, Vitis rotundifolia
Virginia Creeper, Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Anotado en 12 de mayo de 2021 a las 12:58 PM por mjpapay mjpapay

26 de abril de 2021


Stellaria pubera and Stellaria corei

Present taxonomy would place a Stellaria pubera with:
(1) sepals as-long-as or longer than the petals; and
(2) sepals whose underside/abaxial surface is smooth/bald/glabrous
as Stellaria corei, originally described as a subspecies of Stellaria pubera.

However, it is apparent (see iNat observations below) that individuals of Stellaria pubera can have:
1) long pubescent sepals
2) long glabrous sepals
3) short pubescent sepals
4) short glabrous sepals

How can this be?

  • Stellaria corei is a tetraploid (4n) version of the diploid (2n) Stellaria pubera. Stellaria corei likely originated when an error in meiosis resulted in un-reduced gametes [the pollen and egg were not haploid (1n) as usual, but were instead diploid (2n), and when combined (fertilization) resulted in a tetraploid (4n) individual. This sort of thing is common in the cactus genus Opuntia.]
  • Stellaria corei (4n) can interbreed with Stellaria pubera (2n) and produce viable offspring (3n). The offspring will be sterile due to their triploid (3n) genetic composition. The triploid plants can, however, reproduce vegetatively (by rooting at stem nodes, root division, et cetera).
  • The triploid hybrids (Stellaria corei x pubera & Stellari puberi x corei) will present a mixture of traits of the parents, and be difficult or impossible to visually separate - until such time as an in-depth study is conducted across the breadth of the distribution of both species, and hybrids, that includes documentation of physical traits combined with genetic analyses. Only in this way will convincing knowledge be produced to determine whether any physical traits can definitively (statistically significant) be used to separate the species, and the hybrids from the species.

That being said, only 1 observation has been found (as of 23 May 2021) of a Stellaria pubera with pubescent sepals that are longer than the flower petals [this may be a triploid]. I therefore tentatively suggest that

  • combined traits of (1) truly glabrous sepals that are (2) longer than the petals can reliably be attributed to Stellaria corei
  • combined traits of (1) definitively pubescent sepals that are (2) shorter than the flower petals can reliably be attributed to Stellaria pubera
  • Triploid intermediates are expected to exhibit (1) a range of degree of sepal glabrousness and pubescence and (2) a range of sepal length (shorter-than or longer-than the flower petals). When the plant is neither emphatically glabrous, or emphatically pubescent then it may not be far off the mark to consider it a triploid.

What to do with the triploids? A situation that perplexes current taxonomy.

Below are iNaturalist observations of Stellaria pubera

1) Pubescent and Short Sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75730401 pubescent short sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75581210 pubescent short sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75501455 pubescent short sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75367119 pubescent short sepals

2) Glabrous and Short Sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75620153 glabrous short sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75432600 glabrous short sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75309895 glabrous short sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75367619 glabrous short sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75823835 glabrous short sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77168514 glabrous short sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77386917 glabrous short sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77702361 glabrous short sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78464955 glabrous short sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78925219 glabrous short sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79358374 glabrous short sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79594252 glabrous short sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/80194371 glabrous short sepals

3) Pubescent and Long Sepals (nearly-as-long-as or longer than the flower petals)
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75264055 pubescent very long sepals ***
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75371414 pubescent long sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75369222 pubescent long sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75365581 pubescent long sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/75603724 pubescent long sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/76389550 pubescent long sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/76261689 pubescent long sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77204533 pubescent long sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77304357 pubescent long sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77392727 pubescent long sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77747127 pubescent long sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77942031 pubescent long sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78538457 pubescent long sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78562824 pubescent long sepals
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78930613 pubescent long sepals

Anotado en 26 de abril de 2021 a las 11:03 AM por mjpapay mjpapay

13 de enero de 2021


NOTICE: This journal page - Variation in Polystichum acrostichoides - is released from copyright restriction of the author, Michael Papay (mjpapay iNaturalist) so that it may be copied, modified, and made use of by other iNaturalist members who wish to document variation in Polystichum acrostichoide in their region, or wish to adapt this page for documentation of variation in other taxa. Michael Papay (mjpapay iNaturalist) 26 January 2021.

NOTE: This journal post replaces that of 10 January 2021, whose errors were corrected. Also, a few links have been added or replaced. MOST RECENT UPDATE: 29 January 2021.

The Christmas Fern, Polystichum acrostichoides, in the un-glaciated lower Piedmont and Triassic basin of North Carolina, exhibits the diversity of color and form indicated below. erwin_pteridophilos (@erwin_pteridophilos) advised that the source of the variation may at least in part be due to the expression (phenotypic re-emergence) of ancestral genes. This appears to be corroborated by observations of individual Polystichum acrostichoides with completely separate fertile fronds (unlike the usual situation in Polystichum acrostichoides where the fertile section is located at the end of an otherwise sterile frond), and in individuals with twice-divided fronds (unlike the usual once-divided fronds of this species).

What variation occurs in previously glaciated realms? Are populations there more diverse? Less diverse? Differently diverse?

I have not encountered (observed) individuals with long, wide pinnae (leaflets) outside of the Triassic Basin, and then only in lowland mesic areas. They are absent (or scarce?) in adjacent uplands where usual forms still abound.

(1) Green https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67675217
(2) Darkest Green https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67971542
(3) Blue-green https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67326452
(4) Bicolor
a. Blue-Green blade with green central vein https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/66442425
b. Bright Edge https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67855800

a. Shallow Serration https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67326452
b. Shallow-Lobe https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67538429
c. Lobed https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67673243
d. Twice Divided, lobes which themselves are lobed https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/66804039
e. crested/fasciated leaflets, edges terminate in multiple divisions https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67855570
a. Straight-ish; usual https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67807301
b. Curved, sometimes doubly so (recurved) https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67537716
c. Undulate (“crisped” in old parlance) https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67634628
a. Short: less than 2 inches https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67854694
b. Usual: about 2 inches (5 cm) long https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67675217
c. Long: much longer than 2 inches https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67673345
a. Usual: leaflets about 3/8ths inch (1 cm) wide when 2 inches (5 cm) long https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67872751
b. Narrow (relative to length) https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67312460
c. Wide relative to length https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67544636
(5) TIP
a. Acute, pointed – usual case for mature plants https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67673345
b. Blunt, rounded – all young plants https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67311024 https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67156829
c. Divided, also called “crested” https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67673880
(6) EAR, auricle: located near the stem-side of the leaflet.
6a. Acroscopic: on upper edge of leaflet and points toward the stem tip - usual condition.
i. Short - wider than tall https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67591938
ii. Usual - about as tall as wide
iii. Tall - taller than wide https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67538230
iv. Separate - as a lobe, usually restricted to lower (basal) leaflets https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67592332
6b. Basioscopic: on lower edge of leaflet and points toward base of stem https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/68624358
(7) GAP (between adjacent leaflet edges)
a. Slight gap, usual https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67591938
b. Wide gap https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67635552
c. Overlapping, or touching along long edge https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67569071

a. Miniature: plants fertile when small, remain small in old age https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/66415414
b. Short https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/66923628
c. Usual frond length https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67855528
d. Long, larger plants https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67924419 https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67855428
a. Various, upright & lateral https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67855528
b. Upright https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67855364
c. Lateral https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67855428
a. Unbranched, usual condition https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67872751
b. Branched near apex of frond https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67634975
c. Branched at base of frond https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/68123292

(1) Combined with sterile frond
a. Fertile portion of frond constricted in comparison to the infertile leaflets of the same frond; fertile portion of frond restricted to the top of the frond; fertile portion of frond shorter than the sterile portion https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67857342
b. Fertile portion of frond gradually blends into the lower infertile portion of frond; fertile portion of frond equals or somewhat exceeds length of sterile portion https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67675090
(2) Separate fertile frond https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67673670

1) To the crown of the fern https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/68503851
2) To a frond during its growth phase https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/68426233

Anotado en 13 de enero de 2021 a las 12:57 AM por mjpapay mjpapay

06 de enero de 2021

THE FIRST PLANT - Photosynthesis without sunlight.

THE FIRST PLANT (Photosynthesis without the sun!)

Submitted for your consideration, my speculations on the origins of chlorophyll that were very soon proven true by persons who had no idea that I had predicted their discovery whilst simultaneously I had no idea that they were trying to discover it. What? It is like this. In 2017 whilst rewriting the section on Synonymy, I got to thinking about the spectrum of organic molecules in comparison to the spectrum of light. I had a flash of inspiration. Where, I had been wondering, did chlorophyll come from? What was its original funtion? That’s when it struck me. The spectrum of light! We are not accustomed to thinking of heat as light – but it is! Heat is infrared light. And heat was and still is present beneath the ground and at the bottom of the sea in massive quantities, radiating from the earth’s core and mantle. I thought, What if chlorophyll was first used to harness infrared light? It made sense. Life on earth probably began below ground or under water where it was exposed to infrared light. Any organism that could harness infrared light would have the advantage of an almost limitless source of energy! So, I thought chlorophyll might first have photosynthesized infrared light/heat, and only later, when organisms were exposed to sunlight, did a slight modification of the original chlorophyll molecule allow the use of red light from sunshine, the form of photosynthesis we are so familiar with today. I fancied there were descendents of the ancient infrared-harnesing plants at deep-sea vents, and at hot springs like those at Yellowstone National Park. As it so happened, on February 10th, 2018, Christopher Todd Glenn gave a talk at the JC Raulston Arboretum about a North American Rock Garden Society field trip to Wyoming, with a side trip to Yellowstone National Park. Before the talk I approached Mr. Glenn and asked him what he thought of my notion that chlorophyll might have originally been used to harness energy from heat, infrared light. Mr. Glenn pondered a moment, smiled broadly, then suggested the subject would make a nice Master’s Thesis project for me. I wanted to say, I already have a Master’s Degree, but smiled gratefully and thanked him for taking a moment to consider the idea.

Well well well what do you know, a few months later, as was my wont, I was perusing the topics posted at Science Daily News, when this captured my attention: June 14th, 2018: New Type of Photosynthesis Discovered. And there it was. My speculations had been confirmed! Sort of. The lead researcher was Professor Bill Rutherford, Imperial College, England. “The standard, near-universal type of photosynthesis uses the green pigment, chlorophyll-a, both to collect light and use its energy to make useful biochemicals and oxygen. The way chlorophyll-a absorbs light means only the energy from red light can be used for photosynthesis. Since chlorophyll-a is present in all plants, algae and cyanobacteria that we know of, it was considered that the energy of red light set the 'red limit' for photosynthesis; that is, the minimum amount of energy needed to do the demanding chemistry that produces oxygen. The red limit is used in astrobiology to judge whether complex life could have evolved on planets in other solar systems. However, when some cyanobacteria are grown under near-infrared light, the standard chlorophyll-a-containing systems shut down and different systems containing a different kind of chlorophyll, chlorophyll-f, takes over. Until now, it was thought that chlorophyll-f just harvested the [red] light. The new research shows that instead chlorophyll-f plays the key role in photosynthesis under shaded conditions, using lower-energy infrared light to do the complex chemistry. This is photosynthesis 'beyond the red limit'. Lead researcher Professor Bill Rutherford, from the Department of Life Sciences at Imperial, said: "The new form of photosynthesis made us rethink what we thought was possible. It also changes how we understand the key events at the heart of standard photosynthesis. This is textbook changing stuff."

For me it was life changing. Bubbling over with excitement, I shared the news with whoever couldn’t get away. John Foushee, owner of Big Bloomers Flower Farm (BBFF) where I worked at the time, was one of my victims. John listened to my story then said with a wry smile, “You should be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, Mike.” Laughing at my own stupid vanity I replied “Nah, maybe the Nobel Plant Prize.” I must admit, however, all this time later, I still find it very exciting. As Professor Rutherford stated, this has implications for the way we contemplate life on our planet and the possibility of life at distant places of the universe. Our perspective, understanding, and imagination have been broadened. Science requires an open mind – and inspires it too.

08 March 2022 UNDERGROUND LICHENS Lichens are fungi that have a symbiotic relationship with an algae that is incorporated within the tissue of the fungus. The symbiotic algae is called the lichen's "photobiont". Some lichens have Bluegreen algae as photobionts. So, based on the knowledge that some Bluegreen algae can use infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum for photosynthesis, it is possible that there are lichens that live underground or at least out of direct sunlight, their photobiont using heat for photosynthesis. Yes, there are probably underground lichens.

Anotado en 06 de enero de 2021 a las 12:50 PM por mjpapay mjpapay

02 de enero de 2021


Michael J. Papay, 01 January 2021.

Life is a flowing continuous thing while it lives.
It is ever interesting and beguiling.

Figure 1 provides a very simple, idealized, static depiction of interconnectedness between hypothetical species A, B, C and Z, given as a vertical cross-section through two 3-dimensional bells connected at their bases. The reality of the interconnectedness of living things is more complex than that. It is actually 4-dimensional. However, let us proceed in small steps.

NOTE: Due to formatting of Journal entries in iNaturalist, I had to use dots (periods) as space-fillers in Figure 1 and Figure 2.

Figure 1. Two-dimension, normal, bell-shaped distribution curves depict hypothetical species A, B, C, and Z. Only the distribution curves of species A and B are shown. The tails of the distribution curves of species A and species B flow into the beginning tails of distribution curves for species C and Z.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AAAA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BBBB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . AAAAAA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BBBBBB . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . ZAZAAAAACB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABBBBBBCB . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . AZAZAAAAAABBAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AABABBBBBBCCBC . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|-------- introgression---------|
|------- variation of species A --------| |------- variation of species B --------|
. . . . . . . . . . . |-- iconic A --| . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|-- iconic B --|

“Iconic A” represents what we would perceive as the archetypal representation of that species. With only a single glance you would declare, “That is species A”.

“Introgression” represents individuals whose traits are not specifically what we would tend to think of being obviously one species, or the other. However, individuals of the zones of introgression are exceedingly important in the continued procession of life into the dimension of time (the fourth dimension), for they are the substance of adaptation.

If instead of a view of a vertical cross-section of the two interconnected bells, let us consider an aerial view. See Figure 2.

Figure 2. Aerial view of simple, two-dimensional, normal distributions of hypothetical species A, B, C, and Z. Only the distribution of species A and B are shown. The margins of introgression with species C and Z are not shown.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . AZZABAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BABCBCBC . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . ZAZABAAACBB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABABABBCBCB . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . AZABAAAAAABBAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AABABBBBBBCCBC . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . ZZAZAAAAAAAABBABB . . . . . . . . . .BAABABBBBBBBBCCBCC . . . . . .
. . . . . . . ZZAZAAAAAAAABBABB . . . . . . . . . . . BAABABBBBBBBBCCBCC . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . AZABAAAAAABBAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AABABBBBBBCCBC . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . ZAZABAAACBB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABABABBCBCB . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . AZZABAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BABCBCBC . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |------- introgression--------|

I apologize for the non-circular outline of the two “normal” distributions depicted in Figure 2. My artistic skills with mere letters as a medium are not as impressive as one might hope.

What we would perceive as individuals with iconic traits of species A are found in the core of the somewhat circular distribution. The same is true for iconic individuals of species B. However, with this aerial view we see that the numbers of non-iconic individuals of either species is vastly larger than we tend to think. And it is here, at the margins of overlap and introgression, that nature provides novel forms. And this supply of novel forms might be imagined as probing the environment for new opportunities. This action becomes even more dynamic when the dimension of time is applied to the image. Each new generation provides new variation, however subtle it may be.

If the static image depicted in Figure 2 was imagined to be just a single frame in a motion picture, the playing of the motion picture forward, or backward, would show the distributional blob of each species pulsing and probing like an amoeba, or like a Slime Mold, and interacting with other taxa within reach. And the reach may be very far indeed, if one considers the various manners of pollination, and of seed dispersal. That is why life is a flowing continuous thing while it lives, and is ever interesting and beguiling. And it is why the methods of statistics are applicable and necessary in the study of taxonomy.

STATISTICAL PARAMETERS FOR SPECIES: The dynamic nature of life’s fluidity does not defy scientific description. Taxonomy can use the mathematics of statistics for molecular, morphological, behavioral data (et cetera) of species. The “type” of a species would be the datasets and their statistical means, variances, and distribution patterns resultant from detailed scientific studies. Drawings, photos et cetera should accompany the reports to clarify in illustration what the datasets represent.

Via statistical analyses, species (taxa) can be identified and compared mathematically. Too, the changes incurred over the passage of time could be documented in detail. This approach would direct the perception of a species from the narrowly described “Type individual” to the more comprehensive view of a range of variation about a statistical average, inclusive of variants and outliers. There would be consequent benefits to our understanding of the dynamic nature of life at every taxonomic level, accompanied by greater recognition of the importance of areas of connection/interaction

By defining taxa by their statistical averages, the eschelons of taxonomy will be stabilized.

As regards the application of statistics, there are times when the experienced mind must contemplate intervention. The odds of an event occurring may be slim, and the occurrence twice in separate taxa even rarer – that does not mean that such events are impossible. And when the encompassed picture in contemplation suddenly resolves into focus when the improbable is accepted as possible, then learned minds must take heed.

Anotado en 02 de enero de 2021 a las 01:06 AM por mjpapay mjpapay

01 de enero de 2021


This article is an excerpt from my self-published book, Splendor in Spines. Copies are so scarce as to be almost non-existent, so don’t bother looking.

IMPERMANENCE and SYNONYMY, by Michael J. Papay
No landscape is permanent, no life form is permanent, no plant is permanent, and thus no garden can be permanent. Changes come second by second, minute by minute, hour by hour, day by day, season by season, year by year, generation by generation. Changes come. To garden is to engage with the inevitable changes of the universe. The grandest gardens with the most spectacular views are nature’s untended landscapes. Gardeners tend to think that the plants need us, and many of the ones we select for our gardens probably do, but what nature’s landscapes mostly need is for humans to leave them alone, to stop bulldozing and flattening and digging and ditching and damming and cutting down and paving and poisoning. The moment we stop suppressing nature it will resume its processes of checks and balances. Nature’s equilibriums are not permanent. They are in a constant state of flux – by changes in season, climate, weather, geologic activity, and natural calamities. Nothing is permanent. Impermanence allows change, progression, renewal. Transition is the essence of life. It is the way of the universe. It is the dynamism of species. It is the nature of gardens.

Each time a species reproduces, the offspring are a little different from their parents and from each other as well, usually in multitudinous and subtle ways. This is the inherent fluidity of life – and of species. Just as each individual of a species is different from all the other individuals of the same species, every generation is slightly different than the one before it. Setting aside a “type” specimen of a species is like setting aside a bucket of water from a stream.

If geologists categorized mountains by comparing descriptions of only each summit, they would miss all the geology that is present below the summits where each mountain merges into the surrounding landscape. Geologists don’t do that of course, because it is obviously a silly thing to categorize mountains by only their summits, yet this is in essence what taxonomy does when setting a “type specimen” for each species. Mountains of important information are left out. The diverse and fluid nature of a species is downplayed, and we are led to believe that a species is a “fixed” thing rather than a dynamic composition of all of its individuals that changes with each generation. And by thinking of species as fixed things we do not think about the fluid ways in which each species is in flux through its own reproduction. We are led to think of hybridization as unusual rather than important. In essence, our view of species has been the wrong way around for a very long time. We have been looking at the summits of mountains while the world below remained to us something we didn’t know that we should know.

John Ray (1627-1705) helped invent modern taxonomy, and gave us a definition for “species.” In Daniel J. Boorstin’s fantastic book, The Discoverers, the then Librarian to the Library of Congress admiringly wrote, “What Newton did for students of physics…Ray did for the students of nature.” John Ray recognized the problem of continuums, and made no bones about it. In the preface to his Methodus Plantarum Nova (New Plant Method) published in 1682, John Ray wrote, “I would not have my readers expect something perfect or complete, something which would divide all plants so exactly as to include every species without leaving any in positions anomalous or peculiar; something which would so define each genus by its own characteristics that no species be left, so to speak, homeless or be found common to many genera. Nature does not permit anything of the sort.” John Ray got it right. His axiom is intrinsic to life.

The primary colors (red, yellow, blue) appear to be clearly separate. In fact, however, there is a continuous gradation from one end of the spectrum to the other. Understandably we have difficulty coming up with meaningful names for all the colors in-between, let alone spectra invisible to our eyes. Taxonomy is faced with the same problem, only with living things and their constituent molecules. Just as a species is a pool of its individuals, interaction amongst species is a matter of fluid dynamics, not stringent lines. Scientists now inspect the molecular spectrums of life in ever increasing detail. Life’s chemical rainbows provide endlessly diverse and often interwoven continuums, all realms of fluid dynamism. In its origins, taxonomy relied upon observations of how a living thing looked, behaved, and where it lived to ascertain if and how it was different. Where a thing lived, what it looked like, and how it behaved were all tangible things that even nonscientists could understand – and that knowable quality of early taxonomy made it successful. As we discover the true fluid nature of molecular relatedness amongst living things, we must make all that we discover knowable, comprehensible, and thereby useful.

When a species is named but later deemed the same as a previously recorded species, the newer name is retired in favor of the first given name. Retired names are then said to be synonyms of the original name. Yet it is often true that a synonym was used to describe a population that differed from the “type” in an interesting way, thus tracking down synonymous plants can prove rewarding.

Nurserymen are slow to adopt taxonomic name changes. Doing so would require the nursery stock to be re-labeled and re-organized almost constantly, the result being that only the most up-to-date taxonomist would know where to find a plant - a situation entirely unhelpful to the usual customer.

Anotado en 01 de enero de 2021 a las 03:24 PM por mjpapay mjpapay

31 de diciembre de 2020


NOTES: Section 1 was revised and reposted on 12 January 2021. Section, MINIATURE CHRISTMAS FERNS, is retained below.

I submit to iNaturalist members the following information in the hopes that enthusiast will investigate and report upon the variation of Christmas Ferns, Polystichum acrostichoides, in their regions.

I know not how to coordinate any such effort, and encourage those who can manage that feat to do so. Pick up the baton and run, so to speak.

The magnitude of the task of investigating thoroughly the populations of Christmas Ferns across this species vast natural distribution is an insuperable undertaking for one person. It is hoped that many hands will make light work. All credit should go to those who participate.

Cheers to you all,
Michael Papay.


The Christmas Fern, Polystichum acrostichoides, in the un-glaciated lower Piedmont and Triassic basin of North Carolina, exhibits the diversity of color and form indicated below. What variation is to be found in previously glaciated realms where this species now occurs. Are populations in previously un-glaciated regions more diverse? Less diverse? Differently diverse? iNaturalist members in eastern North America, the natural realm of Polystichum acrostichoides, can investigate the variation in their Christmas Fern populations, and post photos and info at iNaturalist.

(1) solid medium green;
(2) solid light green;
(3) solid blue-green;
(4) bicolor
- green & blue-green: center-line of leaflet is green whilst margin is blue-green;
- bright edge: green with a highly contrasting light green edge.
(1) EDGES (leaflets/pinnae)
- very shallowly serrated leaflet margin;
- shallow-lobed leaflet margin;
- fully lobed: leaflet subdivided into sub-leaflets;
- twice divided leaflets: leaflets divided into lobes which themselves are lobed;
- crested/fasciated leaflets - edges terminate in multiple divisions, sometimes bizarrely so.
(2) PLANE (leaflets/pinnae)
- leaflets straight-ish;
- leaflets distinctly curved;
- leaflets undulate.
(3) LENGTH (leaflets/pinnae)
- leaflets short
- leaflets usual
- leaflets long
(4) WIDTH (leaflets/pinnae)
- leaflets narrow
- usual
- wide
(5) TIP (of leaflet/pinnae)
- tapered to a single narrow point – usual case for mature plants.
- rounded; not narrowly pointed – all young plants, uncommon in mature plants
- divided into two (or more) points (crested) – more common in miniature forms.
- miniature fronds: plants fertile when small, remain small in old age, often crested [see study below].
- usual frond length
- longer fronds, larger plants
- fronds variously upright to lateral
- fronds mostly upright
- fronds displayed laterally

Each color form may exhibit each physical form. Each physical form may combine with other physical forms. The potential diversity is staggering. When one form is found, permutations are often nearby.


MINIATURE CHRISTMAS FERNS – A STUDY, By Michael J. Papay, 18 December 2020

I have observed miniature Christmas Ferns, Polystichum acrostichoides, amongst local (Raleigh, North Carolina vicinity) natural populations. The miniature forms are distinguishable by: (1) their small frond size; (2) by their leaflets (pinnae) being smaller versions of plants of usual dimensions and specifically not the very rounded leaflets (pinnae) of young plants; (3) presence of fertile fronds; (4) formation of clonal clump via branching of the rhizome. https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/66415436

I conducted a study that included 13 miniature Christmas Ferns with at least 3 fertile fronds each, and 15 randomly selected usual Christmas Ferns with at least 3 fertile fronds each. To assure that small plants were not simply young plants, only plants from clonal clumps produced by rhizomatous branching were included in the study. For each study plant, the longest 3 fertile fronds were measured. All plants occurred in-situ in the wild. Two sites, several miles apart, were visited. Each site had miniature and usual forms in the landscape. Plants were measured at the end of the growing season, on 03 and 08 December 2020. The data are presented below. Fertile Frond Measurements (FFM) are to the nearest sixteenth of an inch.

Table 1. Fertile Frond Measurements of Miniature and Usual plants of
Christmas Fern, Polystichum acrostichoides


Plant FFMs

1 14.17, 14.00, 14.25

2 15.35, 21.85, 18.62

3 20.86, 18.62, 18.97

4 15.03, 14.37, 14.01

5 16.75, 18.50, 20.50

6 10.31, 11.50, 10.37

7 14.75, 14.75, 14.5

8 17.00, 15.50, 14.25

9 16.26, 16.00, 14.25

10 10.25, 9.37, 8.5

11 11.00, 11.12, 10.37

12 8.69, 8.12, 6.00

13 13.56, 13.25, 13.00

n = 39

average (Xm) = 14.064
standard deviation (SDm) = 3.862

SDm squared (SDm2) = 13.557

Plant FFM’s
1 25.62, 21.50, 24.87
2 30.12, 30.37, 32.00
3 25.62, 28.25, 29.25
4 20.12, 21.75, 22.12

5 30.12, 30.00, 30.06
6 25.12, 25.25, 25.00
7 29.50, 29.25, 29.12
8 31.75, 31.56, 31.50
9 21.00, 17.00, 20.25
10 26.25, 26.50, 26.25
11 26.25, 26.87, 23.12
12 23.37, 25.12, 21.00
13 26.50, 25.56, 27.00
14 25.12, 25.50, 24.00
15 29.00, 27.50, 27.00

n = 45
average (Xu) = 26.222
standard deviation (SDu) = 3.507

SDu squared (SDu2) = 12.299

The two-sample standardized test statistic, Z, was used to test the Null Hypothesis that there is no difference between the average fertile frond lengths of miniature versus usual plants of Christmas Fern. The “one-sided” Alternative Hypothesis chosen was that miniature plants on average have smaller fertile fronds than usual plants of Christmas Fern. A 95% confidence interval was selected for testing, giving a Z value of -3.9 based on a one-sided Standard Z Test Statistic Table. Thus, if the calculated value of the test statistic Z is less than -3.9, the 95% confidence interval is reached and the Null Hypothesis is rejected in favor of the Alternative Hypothesis.
Test statistic Z = [(Xm – Xu) – 0] divided by the square root of [SDm2/39 + SDu2/45].
Z = [(14.064 – 26.222)/square root (13.557/39 + 12.299/45)] = -15.43. The Null Hypothesis is rejected with 95% confidence. The Alternative Hypothesis is accepted, that on average the fertile fronds of miniature Christmas Ferns are significantly shorter than the fertile fronds of usual Christmas Ferns.

This study does not resolve what may be the cause of the miniature size.

Anotado en 31 de diciembre de 2020 a las 12:40 AM por mjpapay mjpapay | 3 observaciones