26 de abril de 2019

Hub to my stuff

It's getting harder to keep track of where I put the journal posts I create, so I'm creating this to help with that.
My projects. My profile.

Euphorbia
List of all Euphorbia resources.
United States project resources.
Anisophyllum project resources.
Statistics.

Croton
Trans-Pecos species.
Central and North Central Texas species.

High Plains Taxa
Abutilon.

Various other taxa
Taraxacum, Texas.
Malvella.
Medicago, Texas.
Asclepias floral morphology.

Other
Various links I use a lot.
iNaturalist tips.

Anotado en abril 26, viernes 07:03 por nathantaylor nathantaylor | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Euphorbia resources and bibliography, full list

iNaturalist projects:
Euphorbia species of the United States
Euphorbia of Mexico
Sandmats of the World

iNaturalist journal posts (general):
Lists and project info:
Species list for the United States
List of species that have not been observed on iNaturalist yet
Project observation fields explained
Tracked statistics
Tips:
Euphorbia, What to Photograph?
Tips on Harvesting and Photographing Seeds
Identification and taxonomy information:
What makes a good sandmat observation
Cyathium explained (Euphorbia PBI)
Cyathium explained in detail (journal post) and tips on cyathium dissection
Advanced Seed Morphology
Euhorbia PBI data portal (for finding species information including subgeneric taxa, nomenclatural information, and more)
Species commonly identified as Euphorbias
Euphorbia subgroups explained
Euphorbia marginata (Snow-on-the-Mountain) and E. bicolor (Snow-on-the-Prairie)
It's that time of year again: The spots of Spotted Spurge (Euphorbia maculata)
Section Nummulariopsis
Euphorbia albomarginata (Whitemargin Sandmat) and E. polycarpa (Smallseed Sandmat)
Euphorbia esula/virgata information (leafy spurges)
Detailed discussion
Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States (Weakley, draft 2015) (see pg. 675)
FNA treatment

General recomended external links:
Flora of North America
BONAP (for maps)
Euphorbia PBI
Euphorbia PBI species search
Tropicos (great way to find primary literature sources)
Biodiversity Heritage Library (great way to find primary literature sources)
GBIF (great way to find herbarium records)
Encyclopedia of life (often useful if you can find a good global map)
SEINet (great way to find herbarium records and photos)
Index herbariorum (useful in understanding what the herbarium abbreviations refer to)
Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States (Weakley, draft 2015) (see pg. 669)

Identification resources by Euphorbia subgroup
Section Alectoroctonum:
The eastern members of sect. Alectoroctonum
Euphorbia marginata (Snow-on-the-Mountain) and E. bicolor (Snow-on-the-Prairie)
Section Anisophyllum:
What makes a good sandmat observation
Euphorbia albomarginata (Whitemargin Sandmat) and E. polycarpa (Smallseed Sandmat)
It's that time of year again: The spots of Spotted Spurge (Euphorbia maculata)
The Weedy Species of Sandmats (Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum) in Texas
Nathan Taylor's thesis: Explorations into Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum (Euphorbiaceae) in the trans-Pecos region of Texas with a focus on the Fendleri Clade (I know, the title is very long)
Madagascar Species
Baja California Peninsula hub
Section Crepidaria:

Subgenus Esula:
Subgenus Esula explained
California Euphorbs of subgenus Esula
Texas Euphorbias, Subgenus Esula
Notes on cyathia with 5 glands
A few members of subgenus Esula sect. Helioscopia

Section Poinsettia:
Basic explaination of the Christmas Poinsettia
Poinsettia cyathia explaination

Section Nummulariopsis:
Section Nummulariopsis

State specific resources (not comprehensive and in progress)
Alabama:
Alabama Euphorbia species
Arizona:
City Spurges - Tucson
California:
Jepson eFlora
California Euphorbs of subgenus Esula
Calflora
City Spurges - San Diego
Florida:
Florida Euphorbia species
Atlas of Florida Plants
Section Nummulariopsis
New Mexico:
The status of the genus Chamaesyce in New Mexico
Texas:
Texas Euphorbia species list
The Weedy Species of Sandmats (Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum) in Texas
City Spurges - DFW area
Sandmats (Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum, previously Chamaesyce) of the Llano Estacado
Texas Euphorbias, the Tithymaloids
Nathan Taylor's thesis: Explorations into Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum (Euphorbiaceae) in the trans-Pecos region of Texas with a focus on the Fendleri Clade (I know, the title is very long)

Outside North America
New Zealand Plant Conservation Network
NZ Flora (27 species listed)
European Euphorbia checklist - found here

References*
*Note that this is taken directly from my annotated reference list and is incomplete (there are many more that I have referenced and several of those below I have not completely read, especially those in other languages). Also, many of the citations are incomplete or are not consistantly formated. It is likely too long to be of much use here, but at least it can be referanced if anyone wonders where I am getting my information.

MY EUPHORBIA PUBLICATIONS
Master's Thesis: Explorations into Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum (Euphorbiaceae) in the trans-Pecos region of Texas with a focus on the Fendleri Clade
Felger, R.S., S. Rutman, & N.C. Taylor. 2015. Ajo Peak to Tinajas Altas: A flora of southwestern Arizona. Part 13. Eudicots: Euphorbiaceae. Phytoneuron 2015:1–65..
Taylor, N.C. & M. Terry. 2015. Euphorbia abramsiana (Euphorbiaceae): New to Texas. Phytoneuron 2015-24:1–7. ISSN 2153 733X
Taylor N.C. & M. Terry. 2016. Euphorbia cryptorubra (Euphorbiaceae), a new species in Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce section Anisophyllum from Texas, U.S.A. and Chihuahua, Mexico. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10:1–9.
Atha, D., Levine, E., and Taylor, N. 2018. First report of Euphorbia hypericifolia (Euphorbiaceae) for New York state. Phytoneuron 2018-74: 1–4.
Mickley, J.G. and Taylor, N. In progress. Occurrence of Thymeleaf Sandmat Euphorbia serpillifolia Persoon (Euphorbiaceae) in Vermont.

TAXONOMY, DESCRIPTIONS, FLORAS, AND MAPS
Bentham, G. 1844. The botany of the voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur. Smith, Elder and Co., London, UK. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/15490
Berry, P.E., V. Steinmann, & Y. Yang. 2011. Proposal to conserve the name Euphorbia acuta Engelm. against E. acuta Bellardi ex Colla (Euphorbiaceae). Taxon 60:603–604.
Berry, P.E., J.A. Peirson, J.J. Morawetz, V.W. Steinmann, R. Riina, Y. Yang, D. Geltman, & N.I. Cacho. 2016. Euphorbia. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 12. New York and Oxford.
Blake, S.F. 1922. New plants from Guatemala and Honduras. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. Vol. 24, part 1.
Boissier, E. 1860. Centuria Euphorbiarum. Société de physique et d'histoire naturelle de Genève.
Boissier, E. 1862. Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum. In A.P. de Candolle [ed.], Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis, vol. 15, part 2, 11–52. Victor Masson & Fils, Paris, France.
Brown, N.E. 1911. Euphorbia. In Flora of tropical Africa vol. 6. [Authors for Euphorbiaceae: N.E. Brown, J. Hutchinson, & D. Prain]
Brown, N.E. 1925. Euphorbia. In Flora Capensis vol. 5, section 2. [Authors for Euphorbiaceae: N.E. Brown, J. Hutchinson, & D. Prain]
Burch, D. 1965. A taxonomic revision of the genus Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) in the Caribbean. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
Burch, D. 1965. Two species of Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) new to the United States. Rhodora 67:185–186.
Burch, D. 1966. The application of the Linnaean names of some New World species of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce. Rhodora 68:155–166.
Burch, D. 1966. Two new species of Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae), new combinations, and a key to the Caribbean members of the genus. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 53:90–99.
Burch, D. 1969. Notes on the Galapagos Euphorbieae (Euphorbiaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 56:173–178.
Burger, W. & M. Huft. 1995. Flora Costaricensis: Family #113 Euphorbiaceae. Fieldiana: Botany No. 36.
Carr, W.R. & M.H. Mayfield. 1993. Chamaesyce velleriflora (Euphorbiaceae) new to Texas. Sida 15:550–551.
Carter, S. 1979. Some new Euphorbia species from East Africa. Kew Bulletin 35:413–421. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4114592
Carter, S. 1983. New taxa and notes on herbaceous species of Euphorbia from East and Northeast Africa. Kew Bulletin 39:643–652. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4108605
Carter, S. 1989. New taxa and taxonomic changes amongst herbaceous Euphorbia species from southern tropical Africa. Kew Bulletin 45:327–337. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4115690
Carter, S. & L.C. Leach. 2001. Euphorbiaceae part 2. Flora Zambesiaca Vol. 9 part 5.
Carter, S. & A.R. Smith. 1988. Euphorbiaceae (Part 2). Flora of Tropical East Africa. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, England.
Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation, Renner, Texas.
Croizat, L. 1943. Novelties in American Euphorbiaceae. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 24:165–189.
Croizat, L. 1945. “Euphorbia chamaesyce” in the United States. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 72:312–318.
Farwell, O.A. 1936. Euphorbia pilulifera in Michigan. Rhodora 38:331–332.
Fawcett, W. & A.B. Rendle. 1910. Flora of Jamaica: Euphorbia. William Clowes and Sons, London.
Felger, R.S., S. Rutman, & N.C. Taylor. 2015. Ajo Peak to Tinajas Altas: A flora of southwestern Arizona. Part 13. Eudicots: Euphorbiaceae. Phytoneuron 2015:1–65.
Fernald, M.L. 1936. Dates of publication of Rydberg’s Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains. Rhodora 38:329–331. Only cited here because of another citation.
Florence, J. 1996. Gallicae Polynesiae florae Praecursores. 1. Nouveautés taxonomiques dans les Euphorbiaceae, Piperaceae et Urticaceae. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Section B, Adansonia. sér. 4, Botanique Phytochimie 18:239–274.
Forbes, F.B. & W.B. Hemsley. 1889. Enumeration of all the plants known from China proper, Formosa, Hainan, the Corea, the Luchu archipelago, and the island of Hongkong; together with their distribution and synonymy. The Journal of the Linnaen Society 26:1–592.
Forster, P.I. & R.J.F. Henderson. 1995. New combinations in Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) from Queensland, Australia. Novon 5:323–324.
Frajman, B. 2011. R. Hand (ed.). Supplementary notes to the Flora of Cyprus VII: Key to the species of Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce from Cyprus. Willdenowia 41:346
Gage, A.T. 1914. New Euphorbiaceae from India and Malaya. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew) 1914:236–241.
Gray, S.F. 1821. A natural arrangement of British plants, 2. Baldwin, London.
Govaerts, R., D.G. Frodin, & A. Radcliffe-Smith. 2000. World checklist and bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae). The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Hadidi, M.N.E. 1973. The genus Euphorbia L. in Egypt I.: Section Anisophyllum Roep. Bulletin du Jardin botanique National de Belgique / Bulletin van de Nationale Plantentuin van België 43:83–100.
Halford, D.A. & W.K. Harris. 2010. A new species of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce Raf. (Euphorbiaceae) from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanical Garden 24:43–46.
Halford, D.A. & W.K. Harris. 2012. A taxonomic revision of Euphorbia section Anisophyllum Roeper (Euphorbiaceae) in Australia. Austrobaileya 8:441–600. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41965600
Hargreaves, B.J. 1991. The spurges of Botswana. Botswana Notes and Records 23:115–158.
Hemsley, W.B. 1882. Botany. Biologia Centrali-Americana; or, contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America. Vol. 3.
Herndon, A. 1993. A revision of the Chamaesyce deltoidea (Euphorbiaceae) complex of Southern Florida. Rhodora 95:38–51.
Herndon, A. 1993. Notes on Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) in Florida. Rhodora 95:352–368.
Hooker, J.D. & G. Bentham. 1849. Flora Nigritiana: XCII. Euphorbiaceae. Niger Flora, Hippolyte Bailliere, London. 498–514.
Hügin, G. & H. Hügin. 1997. Die gattung Chamaesyce in Deutschland. Berichte Bayerische Botanische Gesellschaft 68:103–121.
Hutchinson, J. & J.M. Dalziel. 1952. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 1: 64. Euphorbia. Crown Agent of Overseas Governments and Administrations. Mill Bank, London.
https://archive.org/details/FloraOfWestTropi00hutc [Not sure if cited correctly. Cited in Bolaji et al. (2014), as: J. Hutchinson, J.M. Dalziel S.W.I., in: , second ed., Floral of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 1 Crown Agent of Overseas Governments and Administrations. Mill Bank, London, 1954, pp. 417e422 Part 1. p.]
Jercinovic, E. 2007. The status of the genus Chamaesyce in New Mexico. The New Mexico Botanist Newsletter 40:1–14.
Johnston, I.M. 1922. Undescribed plants mostly from Baja California. University of California Publications in Botany 7:437–446.
Johnston, M.C. & B.H. Warnock. 1960. Euphorbia jejuna, new species from western Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 5:97–99.
Johnston, M.C. 1975. Studies of the Euphorbia species of the Chihuahuan Desert region and adjacent areas. Wrightia 5:120–143.
Kelaart, E.F. 1846. Flora Calpensis. John van Voorst, 1, Paternoster-Row, London.
Koutnik, D.L. 1985. New combinations in Hawaiian Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae). Brittonia 37:397–399.
Léonard, J. 1999. Flore et vegetation du Jebal Uweinat (desert de Libye: Libye, Egypte, Sudan). Bulletin du Jardin botaniqe National de Belgique / Bulletin van de Nationale Plantentuin van België 67:123–216.
Lorence, D.H. & W.L. Wagner. 1996. A new species of Chamaesyce section Sclerophyllae (Euphorbiaceae) from Kaua’i. Novon 6:68–71.
Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species plantarum. Stockholm.
Linnaeus, C. 1754. Genera plantarum. Stockholm.
Linnaeus, C. 1759. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae. Stockholm.
MacBride, J.F. 1951. Flora of Peru: Euphorbiaceae. Field Museum of Natural History: Botany 13:3–200.
Martin, W.C. & C.R. Hutchins. 1980. A flora of New Mexico. 2 vols. Vaduz.
Maya-Lastra, C.A. & C.A.A. Henao. 2010. Euphorbiaceae del Quindío. Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Biotecnologia, Armenia, Columbia.
Maya-Lastra, C.A. & V.W. Steinmann. 2015. Two new species of Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) from Baja California Sur, Mexico and their phylogenetic relationships. Phytotaxa 221:265–278.
Mayfield, M. H. 1991. Euphorbia johnstonii (Euphorbiaceae) a new species from Tamaulipas, Mexico, with notes on Euphorbia subsection Acutae. Sida 14:573–579.
Mayfield, M.H. 1993. New combinations in Chamaesyce A. Gray (Euphorbiaceae) from Texas and the Chihuahuan Desert. Phytologia 75:178–183.
McVaugh, R. 1961. Euphorbiae Novo-Galicanae. Brittonia 13:145–205.
McVaugh, R. 1993. Euphorbiae Novo-Galicanae Revisae. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium 19:207–239.
McVaugh, R. 1995. Euphorbiacearum sertum Novo-Galicianarum revisanum. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium 20:173–215.
Millspaugh, C.F. 1889. Contributions to North American Euphorbiaceae. Proceedings of the California Academy series 2, 2:217–230. (Contr. I)
Millspaugh, C.F. 1890. Contributions to North American Euphorbiaceae – II. Pittonia 2:82–90.
Millspaugh, C.F. 1898a. Notes on the Euphorbias of Dr. Edward Palmer's. Botanical Gazette 25:13–25. (Contr. III)
Millspaugh, C.F. 1898b. Notes and new species of the genus Euphorbia. Botanical Gazette 26:265–270. (Contr. IV)
Millspaugh, C.F. 1914. Contributions to North American Euphorbiaceae – V. Fieldliana 2:383–397.
Millspaugh, C.F. 1916. Contributions to North American Euphorbiaceae – VI. Fieldliana 2:401–412.
Murillo A., J. 2004. Las Euphorbiaceae de Colombia. Biota Colombiana 5:183–199.
Notaris, J. 1878. Repertorium florae Ligusticae: Euphorbia. Repertorium florae Logusticae:359–.
Oldenbourg, R. 1840–1906. Flora Brasiliensis: Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum. [INCOMPLETE CITATION]
Pahlevani, A.H. & R. Riina. 2011. A synopsis of Euphorbia subgen. Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) in Iran. Annales Botanici Fennici 48:304–316.
Parolly, G. & Ö. Eren. 2007. Contributions to the flora of Turkey, 2. Willdenowia 37:243–271.
Perez, J.M. 1895. Florula Gaditana part 5. Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural 24:279–335. [Pg. 501-557 of Florula Gaditana]
Poole, J.M., W.R. Carr, D.M. Price, & J.R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare Plants of Texas: A Field Guide. W.L. Moody Jr. Natural History Series, No. 37. Texas Parks & Wildlife Dept., Austin.
Powell, A.M. & R.D. Worthington. 2018. Flowering plants of the Trans-Pecos and adjacent areas. Sida, Botanical Miscellany 49. Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.A.
Prokhanov, A.I. 1949. R. Lavoot (Trans.). Flora of the U.S.S.R.: Euphorbia. Flora of the U.S.S.R. Vol. 14:233–378.
Rabeler, R.K. & A.F. Cholewa. 2014. Rediscovery of the types of Euphorbia sparsiflora (Euphorbiaceae) and Gutierrezia ionensis (Asteraceae) at MIN. Novon 23:319–320.
Raju, V.S. 1986. On the identity of Euphorbia wightiana Hook.f. Kew Bulletin 4:419–421.
Rao, K.S. & M.N.V. Prasad. 1987. Nomenclatural nodes on Chamaesyce of the Indian subcontinent (Euphorbiaceae). Taxon 36:761–762.
Richardson, J.W. 1968. The genus Euphorbia of the high plains and prairie plains of Kansas, Nebraska, South and North Dakota. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin 48:45–112.
Rydberg, P.A. 1918 (1917 given in publication). Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains. Self published. [See Fernald 1936, Rhodora 38:329]
Shaw, H.K.A. 1972. The Euphorbiaceae of Siam. Kew Bulletin 26:191–363.
Shaw, H.K.A. 1977. Additions and corrections to the Euphorbiaceae of Siam. Kew Bulletin 32:69–83.
Sherff, E.E. 1938. Revision of the Hawaiian species of Euphorbia L. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 25:1–95.
Silva, O.L.M.D., I. Cordeiro, & M.B.R. Caruzo. 2014. Synopsis of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Phytotaxa 181:193–215.
Simmons, M.P. & W.J. Hayden. 1997. Revision of the cerraado hemicryptophytic Chamaesyce of Boissier’s “Pleiadeniae” (Euphorbiaceae). Brittonia 49:155–180.
Singhurst, J.R., A.K. Buthod, & W.C. Holmes. 2012. Chamaesyce cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae) new to Oklahoma. Phytoneuron 2012-10:1–4.
Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the Southeastern flora. The University of North Carolina Press.
Standley, P.C. & J.A. Steyermark. 1949. Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana Vol. 24.
Standley, P.C. 1923. Trees and shrubs of Mexico (Oxalidaceae–Turneraceae): 76. Euphorbiaceae. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium Vol. 23(part 3):595–653.
Steinmann, V.W. 2002a. A new combination and a new name in Mexican Euphorbiaceae. Acta Botanica Mexicana 61:59–60.
Steinmann, V.W. 2002b. Diversidad y endemismo de la familia Euphorbiaceae en México. Acta Botanica Mexicana 61:61–93.
Steinmann, V.W. 2003. Euphorbia nocens, formerly a variety of Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae). Acta Botanica Mexicana 64:37–44.
Steinmann, V.W. 2005. Euphorbia derickii (Euphorbiaceae), a new species from Central Mexico. Novon 15:219–221.
Steinmann, V.W. & J.M. André. Euphorbia (subgen. Chamaesyce sect. Anisophyllum) jaegeri, a shrubby new species from the deserts of California, United States. Aliso 30:1–4.
Steinmann, V.W. 2013. Three new species of Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) from Bolivia. Phytotaxa 114:23–32.
Steinmann, V.W. & E. Jercinovic. 2013. Euphorbia rayturneri (Euphorbiaceae), a new species from southwestern New Mexico, United States. Novon 22:482–485.
Steinmann, V.W. & R.S. Felger. 1997. The Euphorbiaceae of Sonora, Mexico. Aliso 16:1–71.
Taylor, N.C. & M. Terry. 2015. Euphorbia abramsiana (Euphorbiaceae): New to Texas. Phytoneuron 2015-24:1–7. ISSN 2153 733X
Taylor N.C. & M. Terry. 2016. Euphorbia cryptorubra (Euphorbiaceae), a new species in Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce section Anisophyllum from Texas, U.S.A. and Chihuahua, Mexico. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10:1–9.
Thellung, A. 1907. Die in Europa bis jetzt beobachteten: Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum. Bulletin de L’Herbier Boissier 7:741–772.
Thellung, A. & O. Stapf. 1916. A new Euphorbia from St. Helena. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew) 1916:200–201.
Torrey, J. 1859. Botany of the boundary: Euphorbiaceae. Report on the United States and Mexican boundary survey Vol. 2, part 1:185–202.
Torrey, J. 1887. Papers on Euphorbiaceae. The botanical works of the late George Engelmann. 434–449.
Turner, B.L., H. Nichols, G. Denny, & O. Doron. 2003. Atlas of the vascular plants of Texas. Vol. I–Dicots; Vol. II–Ferns, Gymnosperms, Monocots. Sida, Bot. Misc. 24, 1 and 2.
Turner, B.L. 2016. Taxonomy and distribution of Euphorbia chaetocalyx, E. crepidata (sic.) and E. fruticulosa (Euphorbiaceae). Phytologia 98:137–141.
Turner, B.L. 2016. Taxonomy and distribution of Euphorbia stictospora (Euphorbiaceae). Phytologia 98:284–287.
Ulloa, C.U., P. Acevedo-Rodríguez, S. Beck, M.J. Belgrano, R. Bernal, P.E. Berry, L. Brako, M. Celis, G. Davidse, R.C. Forzza, S.R. Gradstein, O. Hokche, B. León, S. León-Yánez, R.E. Magill, D.A. Neill, M. Nee, P.H. Raven, H. Stimmel, M.T. Strong, J.L. Villaseñor, J.L. Zarucchi, F.O. Zuloaga, P.M. Jørgensen. 2017. An Integrated Assessment of the Vascular Plants Species of the Americas. Science 358:1614-1617. doi/10.1126/science.aao0398 [not cited in database]
Ulloa, C.U., P. Acevedo-Rodríguez, S. Beck, M.J. Belgrano, R. Bernal, P.E. Berry, L. Brako, M. Celis, G. Davidse, R.C. Forzza, S.R. Gradstein, O. Hokche, B. León, S. León-Yánez, R.E. Magill, D.A. Neill, M. Nee, P.H. Raven, H. Stimmel, M.T. Strong, J.L. Villaseñor, J.L. Zarucchi, F.O. Zuloaga, P.M. Jørgensen. (2017 onwards). Vascular Plants of the Americas website. Tropicos, botanical information system at the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri, USA. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/VPA: 6 January 2018. [cited in database]
Warnock, B.H. & M.C. Johnston. 1960. New combinations in Texas Euphorbias of subgenus Chamaesyce. The Southwestern Naturalist 5:170.
Warnock, B.H. & M.C. Johnston. 1969. Euphorbia exstipulata var. lata and Euphorbia geyeri var. wheeleriana Warnock and Johnston, new taxa from western Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 14:127–128.
Warnock, B.H. 1974. Wildflowers of the Guadalupe Mountains and the sand dune country, Texas. Sul Ross State University. [Species list: E. albomarginata, E. arizonica (photo E. setiloba), E. astyla (photo E. fendleri), E. carunculata, E. geyeri var. wheeleriana, E. glyptosperma, E. missurica, E. parryi, E. serpillifolia, E. serrula, E. stictospora (photo probably E. prostrata), E. villifera (photo E. serrula),]
Weatherby, C.A. 1910. Mexican phanogams: notes and new species. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 45:422–428.
Webster, G.L. 1967. The genera of Euphorbiaceae in the Southeastern United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 48:303–430.
Webster, G.L. & D. Burch. 1967. Flora of Panama: Euphorbiaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 54:211–350.
Wheeler, L.C. 1934a. California Euphorbia notes. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 33:109–110.
Wheeler, L.C. 1934b. Euphorbia on Guadalupe Island. Leaflets of Western Botany 1:128.
Wheeler, L.C. 1935. Euphorbia capitellata, its synonymy and range. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 62:537–538.
Wheeler, L.C. 1936a. Euphorbia in the Pacific States. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Science 35:127–147.
Wheeler, L.C. 1936b. Revision of the Euphorbia polycarpa group of the Southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico, a preliminary treatment. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 63:397–416, 429–450. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2480946
Wheeler, L.C. 1937. Notes on Euphorbia. Rhodora39:496.
Wheeler, L.C. 1939a. A miscellany of new world Euphorbiaceae. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University. 124:35–42. [Probably not E. punctulata as could be inferred by Burch, 1969. Tropicos suggests this.].
Wheeler, L.C. 1939b. A miscellany of new world Euphorbiaceae: II. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University. 127:48–80.
Wheeler, L.C. 1939c. Two ornamental Mexican Euphorbias. Journal of the Cactus & Succulents Society 11:44–47.
Wheeler, L.C. 1940. Dichapetalacea et Euphorbiaceae Novae. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 52:7–12.
Wheeler, L.C. 1941. Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce in Canada and the United States exclusive of southern Florida. Rhodora 43:97–154, 168–205, 223–286. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/607893
Wheeler, L.C. 1942. Euphorbiaceae, pp. 523–547. In T.H. Kearney & R.H. Peebles Flowering plants and ferns of Arizona. United States Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publications No. 423. United States Government Printing Office, Washington.
Wheeler, L.C. 1945. Euphorbiaceae, pp. 105–109. In C.V. Morton, Mexican phanerogams described by M.E. Jones. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 29:87–116.
Wheeler, L.C. 1960. Euphorbiaceae. pp. 501–520; 1058–1059. In T. H. Kearney & R.H. Peebles, Arizona flora with supplement. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 1085 p.
Wooton, E.O. & P.C. Standley. 1913. Descriptions of new plants preliminary to a report upon the flora of New Mexico. Contributions from the National Herbarium 16:109–196.
Wooton, E.O. & P.C. Standley. 1915. Flora of New Mexico. Contributions from the National Herbarium 19:9–794.
Zanoni, T.A. & W.R. Buck. 1999. Navassa Island and its flora: 2. Checklist of vascular plants. Brittonia 51:389–394.

DISCUSSIONS ON EUPHORBIACEAE ONLY
Webster, G.L. 1994. Synopsis of the genera and suprageneric taxa of Euphorbiaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81:33–144.

THE CYATHIUM
Brown, R. 1818. Observations on the natural family of plants called Compositae. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 12:76–142.
Croizat, L. 1936. On the classification of Euphorbia. I. How important is the cyathium? Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 63:525–531.
Narbona, E., P.L. Ortiz, & M. Arista. 2002. Functional andromonoecy in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae). Annals of Botany 89:571–577. Not Read!
Prenner, G. & P.J. Rudall. 2007. Comparative ontogeny of the cyathium in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) and its allies: Exploring the organ, flower, inflorescence boundary. American Journal of Botany 94:1612–1629.
Prenner, G., N.I. Cacho, D. Baum, & P.J. Rudall. 2010. Is LEAFY a useful marker gene for the flower-inflorescence boundary in the Euphorbia cyathium? Journal of Experimental Botany 62:345–350.

SEEDS
Jordan, M.S. & W.J. Hayden. 1992. A survey of mucilaginous testa in Chamaesyce. Collectanea Botanica 21:79–89.
Pahlevani, A. & H. Akhani. 2011. Seed morphology of Iranian annual species of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 167:212–234.

SEEDLINGS
Hayden, W.J. 1988. Ontogeny of the cotyledonary region of Chamaesyce maculata (Euphorbiaceae). American Journal of Botany 75:1701–1713.

EUPHORBIA S.L. STRUCTURE
Bauer, G. S.N. Gorb, M.C. Klein, A. Nellesen, M. Tapavicza, & T. Speck. 2014. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species. Plos One 9:e113336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113336
Gunawardana, M., E.R. Hyde, S. Lahmeyer, B.L. Dorsey, T.P. La Val, M. Mullen, J. Yoo, R. Knight, & M.M. Baum. 2015. American Journal of Botany 102:1966–1977.

PHYLOGENETICS
Bruyns, P.V., R.J. Mapaya, & T. Hedderson. 2006. A new subgeneric classification of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) based on ITS and psbA–trnH sequence data. Taxon 55:397–420. doi:10.2307/25065587
Horn, J. W., B. W. van Ee, J. J. Morawetz, R. Riina, V. W. Steinmann, P. E. Berry, & K. J. Wurdack. 2012. Phylogenetics and the evolution of major structural characters in the giant genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63:305–326. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.12.022.
Horn, J. W., Z. Xi, R. Riina, J. A. Peirson, Y. Yang, B. L. Dorsey, P. E. Berry, C. C. Davis, & K. J. Wurdack. 2014. Evolutionary bursts in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) are linked with photosynthetic pathway. Evolution 68:3485–3504.
Park, K.R., & R.K. Jansen. 2007. A phylogeny of Euphorbieae subtribe Euphorbiinae (Euphorbiaceae) based on molecular data. Journal of Plant Biology 50:644–649. doi:10.1007/BF03030608
Steinmann, V.W. & J.M. Porter. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships in Euphorbieae (Euphorbiaceae) based on ITS and ndhF sequence data. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89:453–490.
Yang, Y. & P. Berry. 2011. Phylogenetics of the Chamaesyce Clade (Euphorbia, Euphorbiaceae): Reticulate evolution and long-distance dispersal in a prominent C4 lineage. American Journal of Botany 98:1486–1503. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000496
Yang, Y., R. Riina, J.J. Morawetz, T. Haevermans, X. Aubriot, & P.E. Berry. 2012. Molecular phylogenetics and classification of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae). Taxon 61:764–789. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41679308
Zimmermann, N.F.A., C.M. Ritz, & F.H. Hellwig. 2010. Further support for the phylogenetic relationships within Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) from nrITS and trnL–trnF IGS sequence data. Plant Systematics and Evolution 286:39–58. doi:10.1007/s00606-010-0272-7
E. PHOTOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS AND ANATOMY
Aldhebiani, A. & S. Jury. 2013. Anatomical studies on the genus Euphorbia L. Saudi Arabia (Subgenera: Triucalli, Ermophyton, Esula and Chamaesyce). International Research Journal of Plant Science. 4:168–191. Several good references.
Batanouny, K.H., W. Stichler, & H. Ziegler. 1991. Photosynthetic pathways and ecological distribution of Euphorbia species in Egypt. Oecologia 87:565–569.
Christin, P.A., T.L. Sage, E.J. Edwards, R.M. Ogburn, R. Khoshravesh, & R.F. Sage. 2010. Complex evolutionary transitions and the significance of C3–C4 intermediate forms of photosynthesis in Molluginaceae. Evolution 65:643–660.
Kadereit, G., K. Bohley, M. Lauterbach, D.T. Tefarikis, & J.W. Kadereit. 2017. C3–C4 intermediates may be of hybrid origin – a reminder. New Phytologist 215:70–76.
Kakkar, L. & G.S. Paliwal. 1972. Studies on the leaf anatomy of Euphorbia: V. Epidermis. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy Part B Biological Sciences 40:55–67.
Webster, G.L., W.V. Brown, & B.N. Smith. 1975. Systematics of photosynthetic carbon fixation pathways in Euphorbia. Taxon 24:27–33.
Herbst, D. 1971. Disjunct foliar veins in Hawaiian Euphorbias. Science 171:1247–1248.

OTHER
Asgarpour, R., R. Ghorbani, M. Khajeh-Hosseini, E. Mohammadvand, & B.S. Chauhan. 2015. Germination of Spotted Spurge (Chamaesyce maculata) seeds in response to different environmental factors. Weed Science 63:502–510.
Čarni, A. & L. Mucina. 1998. Vegetation of trampled soil dominated by C4 plants in Europe. Journal of Vegetation Science 9:45–56.
Ernst, M., O.M. Grace, C.H. Saslis-Lagouakis, N. Nilsson, H.T. Simonsen, & N. Rønsted. 2015. Global medicinal uses of Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 196:90–101.
Moerman, D.E. 1998. Native American ethnobotany. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Porcher, R.D. & D.A. Rayner. 2002. A guide to the wildflowers of South Carolina. Columbia.
Papers on organisms found on Euphorbia:
Evans, G.A. & A. Polaszek. 1997. Additions to the Encarsia parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) of the Bemisia tabaci-complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 87:563–571. Larvae on Chamaesyce leaves.
Fischer, E. W. Lobin, & J. Mutke. 2011. Striga barthlottii (Orobanchaceae), a new parasitic species from Morocco. Willdenowia 41:51–56. On succulent Euphorbias.

CHROMOSOMAL STUDIES
Keil, D.J. 1976. Chromosome numbers for Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) from western North America. Madroño 23:405–408.
Urbatsch, L.E., J.D. Bacon, R.L. Hartman, M.C. Johnston, T.J. Watson Jr., & G.L. Webster. 1975. Chromosome numbers for North American Euphorbiaceae. American Journal of Botany 62:494–500.

CYATHIAL STUDIES
Brown, R. 1818. Observations on the natural family of plants called Compositae. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 12:76–142.
Croizat, L. 1936. On the classification of Euphorbia. I. How important is the cyathium? Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 63:525–531.
Narbona, E., P.L. Ortiz, & M. Arista. 2002. Functional andromonoecy in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae). Annals of Botany 89:571–577. Not Read!
Prenner, G. & P.J. Rudall. 2007. Comparative ontogeny of the cyathium in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) and its allies: Exploring the organ, flower, inflorescence boundary. American Journal of Botany 94:1612–1629.
Prenner, G., N.I. Cacho, D. Baum, & P.J. Rudall. 2010. Is LEAFY a useful marker gene for the flower-inflorescence boundary in the Euphorbia cyathium? Journal of Experimental Botany 62:345–350.
Wheeler, L.C. 1936. Revision of the Euphorbia polycarpa group of the Southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico, a preliminary treatment. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 63:397–416, 429–450. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2480946

Anotado en abril 26, viernes 06:41 por nathantaylor nathantaylor | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

15 de abril de 2019

Texas Euphorbias, Subgenus Esula

I finally went through all the Texas Euphorbias including a group that has given me some trouble in the past: subgenus Esula. Here are the important characteristics that I came up with that roughly goes from easiest to separate to most difficult or grouped by similar species. There are still a couple that I am having a lot of trouble with, but this should work in general. If not mentioned, assume horned glands, smooth fruits, and entire leaves. For terminology information, please read here.

E. lathyris: Leaves clearly opposite, forming an X shaped pattern going up the stem; plants bluish-green.

E. spathulata: Serrated leaves, no horn-like appendages on the oval glands, and warty fruits

Third photo: E. spathulata: left; E. texana: right. Source observation here

E. texana: Just like E. spathulata but with smooth fruits.

Source observation here

E. helioscopia: Like E. texana but typically with around 5 pleiochasial branches instead of 3 (the main branches of the inflorescence).

E. peplus: Winged fruits.

Source observation here

E. roemeriana: Partially fused dichasial bracts (the bracts that are held in pairs).

E. brachycera: Large perennial plants usually with some triangular-ovate bracts (hard to separate unless you actually see the plants or a picture of the plants).

E. peplidion: Dichasial bracts +/- broadly lanceolate with acute apices.

Source observation here

E. longicruris: Dichasial bracts imbricate notably asymmetric with the ventral half extended, generally distinctly reniform, generally strongly ascending, apices rounded, bases cordate and overlapping if spread; fruits with two raised areas along the keels (not wings) similar to E. peplus.

Source observation here

E. austrotexana: Leaves narrow, linear to oblanceolate or narrowly lanceolate.

E. tetrapora: Dichasial bracts essentially symmetric or slightly asymmetric, generally subdeltoid, generally spreading or weakly ascending, apices typically mucronate, bases generally truncate to subcordate; stems erect, unbranched at the base; fruits with two raised areas along the keels (not wings) similar to E. peplus.

Source observation here

E. helleri: Dichasial bracts mucronate or not, sometimes abruptly narrowing at the middle with a rounded apex; stems ascending, branched at the base; lower leaves often notably emarginate, leaves except dichasial bracts spathulate or oblanceolate.

Source observation here

I'd like to note that E. austrotexana has not been observed on iNaturalist and neither E. lathyris nor E. helioscopia have been observed for Texas if anyone is interested in hunting them down. By the way, I continually update a list of all the species not observed in the US on iNaturalist here.

ID notes on E. peplus, E. longicruris, and E. tetrapora: I have had some difficulty distinguishing these three in the past. They key in very different places making it difficult to ascertain the essence of their differences (especially with E. longicruris as distinctive as the imbricate bracts are and how problematic it can be when considering things like etiolation). Since creating this, the distinctions have been updated and should reflect a more consistent understanding of the species.

Comparison of the fruits of E. peplus (left) and E. longicruris (right):

References:
Original publication for E. austrotexana

Anotado en abril 15, lunes 20:31 por nathantaylor nathantaylor | 12 comentarios | Deja un comentario

17 de marzo de 2019

A quick trip to California

I just got back from a rather quick and intensive trip to California and figured it would be fun to write up some of the things that happened in this journal post.

6 Mar: To start the day, my parents and I drove from the eastern edge of AZ (TX Canyon rest stop) to CA. I had contacted Dr. Victor Steinmann a few days prior and I was going to meet him today. Dr. Steinmann had offered to take me to a population of Euphorbia jaegeri (a really rare California endemic) off of I-10 out near Joshua Tree National Park. On the way there, we stopped near Phoenix, AZ and I saw what may be the narrowest leaf forms of E. maculata I've ever seen. Not a major find, but a fun find nonetheless. A few hours later, we met with Dr. Steinmann. He and I carpooled to the base of a canyon where E. jaegeri was located. Nearly immediately after getting out of the car, I managed to impale myself on Cylindropuntia ramosissima (serves me right for not paying attention in the desert). The wildflowers were wonderful. I recognized few of the genera and even fewer species. A full list can be found here. After climbing and talking extensively about Euphorbia, we found what we were looking for. A couple of the E. jaegeri plants were a foot across or more! It took more searching and climbing, but we eventually found a single immature fruit. Most of the plants had no cyathia. When we got back, we took a quick trip to Joshua Tree NP and saw all the wildflowers in bloom. Perhaps the highlight was seeing Tetracoccus hallii which used to be in Euphorbiaceae but is now a member of Picrodendraceae. A full list can be found here.
At some point in the field, Dr. Jon Rebman replied to my email asking if I could come by the herbarium at the San Diego Natural History Museum.

7 Mar: In the morning, my parents and I drove to San Diego and went to the herbarium at the San Diego Natural History Museum. I got a ton of work done on one of the more complicated Euphorbia problems in Baja California. I nearly got as much done as I was expecting to but didn't get anywhere near as much as I wanted to. There are just too many species complexes that need studying. Perhaps the most interesting realization is just how bad of a catch-all group E. serpillifolia really is. There always seems to be more work to do in Euphorbia!

8 Mar: Not much to report here. I got a little time to explore a nearby park and a full list of things I found can be seen here.

From this point on, I was preoccupied essentially the entire time with non-botany stuff. I managed to find a lifer and a few other little interesting things, but nothing like what I found those three days. In particular, Euphorbia peplus is a common weed throughout much of CA, but I have only gotten to see it once (in El Paso). It was nice to get to see the many plants of it growing in person. So naturally, I ended up adding photos of the two most commonly observed species on iNaturalist and they will get lost in the mess. :-) Also, to those who may have wanted to see me when I was in the area, I apologize for not reaching out. I would have loved to make more of the trip, but I just didn't have the time. Most of my observations other than those mentioned above were taken quickly between locations and even the stops above were much quicker than I would have preferred.

Anotado en marzo 17, domingo 19:12 por nathantaylor nathantaylor | 5 observaciones | 3 comentarios | Deja un comentario

29 de noviembre de 2018

Milkweed Flower Morphology

Plants in the subfamily Asclepiadoideae all have a very interesting morphology. One particularly interesting modification is that the staminate and pistillate parts are fused together into a structure called a gynostegium. The stamens have been modified so that the pollen sticks together to form pollinia. Members of the Genus Asclepias (and some other genera) have a very specialized corona that forms structures called hoods and horns. This morphology is explained in the below longitudinal section.

Close-up of a pollinium:

This is what it looks like normally.

Anotado en noviembre 29, jueves 01:28 por nathantaylor nathantaylor | 5 comentarios | Deja un comentario

16 de septiembre de 2018

10,000 Chamaesyces. iNaturalist sure has grown!

iNaturalist has now reached over 10,000 Chamaesyce-type (Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum) Euphorbia observations! iNaturalist has exploded with in terms of Euphorbia observations. But just how much has iNaturalist grown? I added my first observation in December of 2014. There were 279 Chamaesyce observations at that time. I didn't really get into iNaturalist until probably May of the following year. By the end of that month, there were 404 Chamaesyce observations. By the end of 2015, there were 939. End of 2016, 2,222; an increase of 1,283. End of 2017, 5,423; an increase of 4,140. And today, 10,363. We are 60 observations away from 5,000 observations for the year of 2018 [UPDATE: as of 25 Nov 2018, we are at 13,107; this totals 7,684 for the year]. By the way, for the genus Euphorbia, the number was 2,351 at the end of May 2015. Now, it is 27,029. 15,873 of those are from the United States.

This growth has led to so many interesting discoveries and there is now at least one verified observation for every Euphorbia species in the continental US except 22 (information here). It has directly led to the discovery of at least 4 state records and so much understanding about the variability exhibited in these species. There are 125 Chamaesyce species that have been observed (a few not yet verified) and 556 species of Euphorbia in general. This is a huge accomplishment and I am grateful to everyone who has contributed thus far.

There is a downside to so much growth. At some times, I have been overwhelmed by the flood of observations coming in and had to focus on only the most interesting observations. This has gotten me thinking about the future. If the rate of observations increases, there will come a time when I will be unable to manage it. When also taking into account factors in my own life that will inevitably limit my ability to contribute IDs, I think it is time to refocus my efforts. Soon, I will start focusing heavily on writing up papers, guides, journal posts, etc. that focus on helping others learn what I know to help with higher quality identifications. As such, I may start ignoring bad identifications of very common species in the interest of devoting more time to the above goals. I have already started to not explain my identifications unless the explanations are asked for. If I gave an ID without an explanation, please don't take it personally or be disappointed that you got the wrong ID. Chances are, I've seen a lot worse identifications and I've got of observations to get through.

For now, I still want to look through all the Euphorbia observations, but I will start refocusing. For those who observe or identify Euphorbias, it would help a lot if you could learn the various groups of Euphorbia. That way, if I have to prioritize, I can look at sect. Anisophyllum without having to wade through the rest of Euphorbia so much. If you really want to help, the best thing you can do is learn your local species by looking through the species that have been observed in your area and ask for help with difficult ones. After that, share your knowledge by looking through the Euphorbias that are observed in your area and add your ID. Even if its wrong or already research grade, this will improve your search image. Many of you are already doing this and to those, I am most grateful. For others, I don't mind trying to coach along anyone who really wants to try to learn their local species.

Lastly, please please please let me know if there is anything confusing about what I write or have written. Also, if there is anything that I have written on one of your observations that you think I should include in what I write, let me know. The goal is to make user-friendly documents that help anyone learn the different Chamaesyces around them.

Thanks again everyone. iNaturalist and the community that makes it up is awesome.

P.S., I have a resources list for two of my three projects, Euphorbia species of the United States, Euphorbia of Mexico, and Sandmats of the World. Sandmats of the World is a relatively new one and I have done very little with it so far. The best resources list at the moment is here.

Anotado en septiembre 16, domingo 18:20 por nathantaylor nathantaylor | 7 comentarios | Deja un comentario

29 de junio de 2018

Tomato Hornworm color variation based on host

I recently got an infestation of Tomato Hornworms (Manduca sexta) on my tomato plant and turned it into an excuse to do a casual experiment. I decided to raise them on several different hosts to see if there was any color variation as I remembered seeing a silvery Manduca quinquemaculata on Silverleaf Nightshade. Anyway, the associated observations tell the story.

They were raised on the following plant species:
Raised on Proboscidea louisianica (Devil's Claw).

Initially collected as pests on my tomato plant. Initial observation here.
Caterpillars from the same batch raised on multiple different plants as follows (click on name to see observation):
Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato)
Solanum tuberosum (Potato)
Solanum elaeagnifolium (Silver-leaf Nightshade):
28 Jun 2018 (same individual or group of individuals)
4 Jul 2018 (same individual or group of individuals)
Solanum rostratum (Buffalo Bur)
Proboscidea louisianica (Devil's Claw):
28 Jun 2018 (same individual or group of individuals)
4 Jul 2018 (same individual or group of individuals)

When they started out, they looked like this: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/13592914. Some were so young that they were yellow instead of green.

I decided to let them go today as the tomato creates a lot of humidity in a little vial which caused problems. Also, my potato plants can't keep up with the caterpillar's needs. Despite this, I still might be able to check on the caterpillars started on native plants as I released them on the same plants they were raised on.

Anotado en junio 29, viernes 03:52 por nathantaylor nathantaylor | 5 observaciones | 1 comentarios | Deja un comentario

10 de mayo de 2018

New project: Sandmats of the world

So, I recently made a new project. I partly made it to test out the new project format, but mostly to provide a place to type out any information I learned about species in Ecuador and Peru. However, there's really no telling where in the world I might want to post about Chamaesyces. After the Andean species, I might try to learn some of the species from Hawaii, the Middle East, or Africa. Anyway, I think there's some potential for some fun posts if anyone is interested. Here's the link:
https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/sandmats-of-the-world

Anotado en mayo 10, jueves 19:06 por nathantaylor nathantaylor | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

09 de mayo de 2018

Various links I use a lot

Helpful sites for plant identification in general (also name databases):
BONAP
USDA Plants database
SEINet
Flora of North America
The Plant List
ITIS
Caterpillar host database

Links I often use for studying Euphorbia:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Tropicos
GBIF
Encyclopedia of life
SEINet
Index herbariorum
Euphorbia PBI
Euphorbia PBI species search
Information on Euphorbia serpens/E. inaequilatera in Africa
List of my Euphorbia identifications on iNaturalist

Curator and other iNaturalist links:
Curator guide
Create new taxon
Taxa that need curation
Frequently used comments
iNaturalist google group

Link extension for finding observations without seeds that say they have seeds: &taxon_id=51822&field:seeds%20shown%3F=yes&field:Euphorbia%20taxonomic%20groups=unknown
Link extension for South Texas: &not_in_place=6793&nelat=28.829127840976845&nelng=-89.2749798392581&swlat=23.406643370556377&swlng=-104.71687556260099


Anotado en mayo 09, miércoles 19:03 por nathantaylor nathantaylor | 3 comentarios | Deja un comentario

24 de marzo de 2018

Texas species of Dandelion, as near as I can tell

According to Flora of North America, there are two species of Dandelion (Taraxacum) in Texas: T. officinale and T. erythrospermum. Apparently, the only way to tell the two apart is by the color of the achenes. Taraxacum officinale has fruits that are "straw-colored to olive, brown, or red to pale or dark gray" while T. erythrospermum has fruits that are "brick red to reddish brown or reddish purple". What follows are some photos of what I believe are representative of both species.

Taraxacum officinale at left, Taraxacum erythrospermum at right.

Fruits in greater detail:
Taraxacum officinale:

Taraxacum erythrospermum:

I have always been dubious of colors as key characteristics and learned early on not to trust them. I have since learned there are some circumstances, but I remain dubious here. At the very least, it seems like there might be some structural characteristics here that would be much more stable that could be relied upon. In the previous photos, T. erythrospermum seems to be smaller on average (this was the largest achene I could find from the specimens I took), be less hairy, and be muricate throughout (the rough horn-like projections). Taraxacum officinale, on the other hand, seems to have minute hairs (contrary to the description) and be muricate only towards the apical end. There is also, of course, a color difference. In the plants themselves, T. officinale has a tendency to have harier peduncles in the environment these were encountered in.

This is admittedly a very small sample size and I will try to follow-up with more info. Ideally, I would grow the two species and see how well they retain their parents' tendencies. Color is usually such an unstable characteristic that I'm still not convinced (as is leaf shape, the other characteristics used). Not only that but there is overlap in the description itself.

Another good, and more striking, comparison photo of the two can be found from Maryland Biodiversity Project and is displayed below:

I tend to think this comparison represents the extreme end of the variability of the two species and identification of other individuals is not usually this easy.

Observations the photos are found in are as follows:
Taraxacum officinale:
Fruiting head. Single achene.
Taraxacum erythrospermum:
Fruiting head. Single achene.

Reliable T. erythrospermum observations:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/7811183
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/7766362
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/7731039
Reliable T. officinale observations:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9577717
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9402362
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9292763
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9244265
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9166812
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9064497

Anotado en marzo 24, sábado 01:25 por nathantaylor nathantaylor | 30 comentarios | Deja un comentario