13 de febrero de 2020

Calephelis Metalmark ID Notes (Fatal, Rounded, & Rawson's)

The following notes I made because I found the information in the guidebooks often confusing and occasionally inaccurate for identifying Calephelis in Texas. Wing color, median band darkness, wing shape, & submarginal spot size on hindwing I have examined, but have not found very helpful. I tested my ID notes on over 300 photographed specimens. They seem to be reasonably accurate, especially, if one is able to get confirmation with more than one noted special feature. Comments and corrections are welcomed.

Fatal Metalmark ID Notes: Silver Bar 1 & 2 in postmedian band on forewing are evenly aligned (e.g. single-looped) & Bar 3 & 4 are aligned about evenly with them or slightly above (e.g. not bulging). Black Bar 1 to 4 in postmedian band on forewing follow a similar pattern except Bar 3 is offset significantly higher above them. Postmedian band of hindwing is open and generally pale. A fresh Fatal usually has 3 prominent white fringe marks on its FW (Each end & the middle) and occasionally 2 to 4 less distinct white fringe-marks on its HW. [Rounded- usu. lacks prominent white fringe-marks, but occasionally has 2 on its FW (Each end) & in rarer cases additional ones on FW & HW; Rawson's- Its FW usually has 2 semi-prominent white fringe-marks (Each end) & often 1 or more smaller white fringe-marks in the middle. Each HW often has 3 to 4 small white fringe-marks].

Rounded Metalmark Notes: Silver Bar 1 and 3 in postmedian band on forewing are roughly evenly aligned & Bar 2 is offset below them (e.g. double-looped & bulging). Black Bar 1 to 3 in postmedian band on forewing roughly replicate the pattern of the silver bars & pattern may have an upward slant. Black Bar 3, consequently, in postmedian band is usually even or offset higher to Bar 1 (In Fatal Bar 3 is offset significantly higher than Bar 1. In Rawson's Bar 3 is typically about even to Bar 1). Postmedian band of hindwing generally, but not always, has a narrowish section near abdomen. Fresh individuals usually lack prominent white fringe-marks, but occasionally have 2 on their FW (Each end). In rarer instances they can also have a middle white fringe-mark on FW and additional white fringe-marks on HW.

Rawson's Metalmark Notes: Silver Bar 1 and 3 in postmedian band on forewing are roughly evenly aligned & Bar 2 is slightly offset below them (e.g. mildly double-looped). Black Bar 1 to 3 in postmedian band on forewing roughly replicate the pattern of the silver bars. Black Bar 3 in postmedian band is typically about even to Bar 1 (In Rounded Bar 3 is even or higher to Bar 1. In Fatal Bar 3 is offset significantly higher than Bar 1). Postmedian band of hindwing usually fairly open without a narrowish section near abdomen that Rounded often possesses. A fresh Rawson's usually has 2 semi-prominent white fringe-marks on forewing (Each end) & often 1 or more smaller white fringe-marks in the middle. Each HW often has 3 to 4 small white check-marks.

Miscellaneous & Reference Info.

Range Note: Differences between Rounded and Rawson's are minimal. Best way most of the time to differentiate is probably by using their range maps. They overlap only in Central Texas (Austin/San Antonio). Rawson’s is mainly in the Texas “hill country” and parts of West Texas such as Big Bend N.P. Rounded is generally found from Austin southward (excluding hill country) downward to the coast and South Texas. Fatal coexists in both their ranges.

Bar Alignment Note: To interpret the bar alignment pattern on an extended upper forewing, an imaginary line formed by connecting its first 3 black submarginal dots on its forewing should be held approximately in a horizontal position to the identifier. Bars will sometimes not be in the shape of a straight & horizontal line, but can look like a slanted line or an upside-down “V”. Height for these bars should be taken at the center of the cell they are within. The black submarginal dots located above bars can be used as reference as they are situated at cell center. Bar alignment pattern is usually clearer on a closed underwing.

Host Plant Notes: Fatal- Texas Virgin's Bower (aka Old Man's Beard, Clematis drummondii) & Willow Baccharis (Baccharis salicina). Rounded- Siam Weed (aka Crucita, Chromolaena odorata) & probably other mist flowers (maybe Fleischmannia incarnata). Rawson's- Shrubby Boneset (Ageratina havanensis).

Main Reference Sources:
"A Swift Guide to Butterflies of North America" (2017) by Glassberg
http://butterfliesofamerica.com/t/Calephelis_nemesis_australis_a.htm
http://butterfliesofamerica.com/t/Calephelis_p_perditalis_a.htm
http://butterfliesofamerica.com/t/Calephelis_rawsoni_a.htm
Personal observations and photos & readings from BugGuide, INaturalist, etc.

Anotado en febrero 13, jueves 12:38 por sfrue sfrue | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Archivos