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North side - 07/29/21

Thursday 9:20-11:10 am: no newts.
Weather - hot.
Other roadkills: a few wasps, Jerusalem cricket, fence lizard. I saw a young Steller's Jay on a wire, next to a California Scrub-Jay, and a flicker just took off from that area when I got there. Maybe they had an important meeting.
Coverage: from the parking lot to the second stop sign.
Traffic: 4 trucks, 76 cars, 14 bikes, 11 pedestrians, and 22 cars parked by the road and in the parking lots (2 cars at the far lot). There were no cars parked by limekiln, a few cars by the boat club. A large group of kids getting ready for camp at the first parking lot.
So apparently the gravel road I saw last week wasn't work in progress, it was the new road. This week it was already painted. Not sure why, but they repaved the entire north section (possibly more), including all parts that were repaved in the fall. This road is different - it feels like loose gravel, there is no top layer of tar. I wonder why they did that, and I hope that people won't like it and chose not to drive there...

In a way it feels safer - now that it's painted, even though they paved a wider road, they left wider shoulders, leaving us some space to walk. Thanks County Roads for thinking about us :)
A link to all my observations of the day -

Anotado en domingo, 01 de agosto de 2021 a las 03:36 PM por merav merav | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Hello everyone

I am so happy to see that this project has grown so quickly having over 400 members in just a few weeks! We also have over half a million iNat observations collectively! That's crazy!! I am so glad that there has been so much interest in this project and honestly surprised at how many of us queer nature folk there are out there using iNat to explore the world. I think the queer visibility that this project brings is also really important. The LGBTQ community is massively diverse in our identities and interests.

Here is a link to the Facebook page "Queers in the Woods" if anyone would like to join that as well.

If anyone has any other resources, articles, or other queer nature groups to join that you would like to share on here please feel free to comment or message me and I'll post it.

Anotado en domingo, 01 de agosto de 2021 a las 02:28 PM por ty-sharrow ty-sharrow | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Weekly statistics between July 25, 2021 and July 31, 2021

This week 196 observers made 925 observations between Sunday, July 25, 2021 to Saturday, July 31, 2021. Among the top five observers, @stephen220 observed 70 examples of life in the Anacostia watershed; @jmgconsult contributed 69; @dtread1 and @vwiest each contributed 49; and @wilpersm contributed 40. Rounding out the top observers, @woodcut55 contributed 34; @jimdella contributed 31; @candice_white contributed 22; @ruddyturnstone-lilia contributed 21; and @amayare contributed 19. 98 people contributed one observation, 26 people contributed two observations, and 16 people contributed 3 observations. Insects stayed in first place (329 observations), followed by Plants (287 observations), and Aves (Birds) (113 observations). Mollusca had four observations, and Mammalia had 13 observations.

A few highlights of observations are provided below, to celebrate the wide variety of life found in the Anacostia watershed.
@vwiest Long-flange Millipede https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/89195571
@dinospine Banded Fishing Spider https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/88963803
@gardenbeth Labyrinth Orbweaver https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/88776130
@bradley16 Magnolia Green Jumping Spider https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/88754066
@jsulzmann Spiders https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/89099194
@mstrecker Spiders https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/89185961
@bugzilla Spined Micrathena https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/89469153
@simone_skerritt Spined Micrathena https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/89009489
@ackegler Spotted Orbweaver https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/88539938
@lauriedkr Tan Jumping Spider https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/88951453
@sarah_jasinski Typical Spiders https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/88863717
@stephen220 Acadian Flycatcher https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/89305106
@jimdella Eastern Towhee https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/89276790
@bugzilla Eastern Wood-Pewee https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/89469166
@cneyland Ruby-throated Hummingbird https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/89139915
@rauvbbj Ruby-throated Hummingbird https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/88561457
@stellatea Ruby-throated Hummingbird https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/88899498
@stephen220 Ruby-throated Hummingbird https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/89271590
@stephen220 Ruby-throated Hummingbird https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/89271591
@stephen220 Yellow Warbler https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/88776228

Observations this week, by Taxon:
Amphibia 10
Animalia 2
Arachnida 15
Aves 113
Fungi 27
Insecta 329
Mammalia 13
Mollusca 4
Plantae 287
Reptilia 45
(blank) 80

Anotado en domingo, 01 de agosto de 2021 a las 02:10 PM por jmgconsult jmgconsult | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Day 4 – August 1 // Jour 4 : 1er août

Theme of the Day: Flowers & their visitors

Day four and going strong! Thank you to everyone who has already contributed observations to the BioBlitz. Today we’ll shift our focus to flowers and their visitors.

Flowers come in many shapes, sizes, and even smells, making for welcome attractions in any setting. There are about 369,000 species of flowering plants in the world and native wildflowers help support a greater diversity of pollinators and other insects.

Want to learn more interesting facts? Register for our event here to help document the natural world, gain access to activity packages and resources, and contest opportunities.

Pro Tip:

  1. The next time you’re outside near flowers, try to see if you can recognize some of their characteristics that make them attractive to visitors. Do they have large or small petals? Are they bright and colourful? Do they give off a scent? In addition to photos, you can use this information with online resources in identifying specific species of flowers.
  2. If you submit a photo of a plant growing in your yard or a public park, be sure to check the “captive/cultivated” option when making your observation. This tells researchers using the data that the specimen was planted by humans rather than growing wild. If you are not sure what counts as “captive/cultivated” refer to this explanation from the iNaturalist website.
Thème du jour : les fleurs et leurs visiteurs

Nous entamons en force le jour 4 du Grand BioBlitz! Merci à toutes les personnes qui ont déjà soumis des observations. Aujourd’hui, nous allons mettre l’accent sur les fleurs et leurs visiteurs.

Les fleurs ont une grande variété de formes, de tailles et même d’odeurs, si bien qu’il y en a pour tous les goûts! La planète compte environ 369 000 espèces de plantes à fleurs et les fleurs sauvages indigènes soutiennent une plus grande diversité de pollinisateurs et d’autres insectes.

Aimeriez-vous connaître d’autres faits intéressants? Inscrivez-vous à l’événement ici pour contribuer à documenter le monde naturel et avoir accès à des fiches d’activité, ressources et concours.

Truc de pro :
  1. La prochaine fois que vous vous trouvez dehors en présence de fleurs, essayez de reconnaître certaines des caractéristiques qui les rendent attrayantes pour leurs visiteurs. Leurs pétales sont-ils grands ou petits? Sont-elles de couleurs vives et variées? Émettent-elles une odeur? En plus de vos photos, ces caractéristiques pourraient vous être utiles pour utiliser des ressources en ligne qui faciliteront l’identification d’espèces en particulier.
  2. Si vous soumettez une photo d’une espèce végétale qui a été plantée intentionnellement dans votre cour ou un espace vert public, assurez-vous de cocher la case « captif/cultivé » au moment de soumettre votre observation. Cela indique aux scientifiques qui utilisent ces données que le spécimen a été planté par des humains et qu’il n’a pas poussé à cet endroit à l’état sauvage.

Anotado en domingo, 01 de agosto de 2021 a las 01:50 PM por natureconservancycanada natureconservancycanada | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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.::Rankings JULIO::.

Mayor Número de Pueblos:
susanalois________________/ 31 Pueblos
alvarocantarerotomas______/ 8 Pueblos
juliolpezescribano__________/ 7 Pueblos
pabergon__________________/ 6 Pueblos
pabloolivasgregorio_________/ 6 Pueblos
antonio1961________________/ 5 Pueblos
javier_gil___________________/ 5 Pueblos
alex21222324_______________/ 4 Pueblos
carlos_sb___________________/ 3 Pueblos
chema63___________________/ 3 Pueblos
cristina_torres_______________/ 3 Pueblos
vivas________________________/ 3 Pueblos

Mayor Observador Único:
susanalois________________/ Observador/a Únic@ de 15 Pueblos
antonio1961_______________/ Observador/a Únic@ de 4 Pueblos
alex21222324_____________/ Observador/a Únic@ de 3 Pueblos
castieler__________________/ Observador/a Únic@ de 2 Pueblos
chema63_________________/ Observador/a Únic@ de 2 Pueblos
cristina_torres_____________/ Observador/a Únic@ de 2 Pueblos
juliolpezescribano__________/ Observador/a Únic@ de 2 Pueblos

Más Observaciones Favoritas:
pabloolivasgregorio_______/ 10 Observaciones Favoritas
susanalois_______________/ 8 Observaciones Favoritas
sil_vi____________________/ 4 Observaciones Favoritas
chema63________________/ 3 Observaciones Favoritas

Anotado en domingo, 01 de agosto de 2021 a las 01:32 PM por luimter luimter | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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August 2021: Describe your walk by adding a comment below

Each time you go out and make observations for this project, describe your walk by adding a comment to this post. Include the date, distance walked, and categories that you used for this walk.

Suggested format:
Date. Place. Distance walked today. Total distance for this project.
Brief description of the area, what you saw, what you learned, who was with you, or any other details you care to share.

Anotado en domingo, 01 de agosto de 2021 a las 11:53 AM por erikamitchell erikamitchell | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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If 4000 people held hands...

Hi fish-fans,
I'm delighted to be able to inform you of another project milestone. Australasian Fishes now contains observations from over 4000 people.
I wanted to give you an 'on the water' analogy of how incredible this is. So, with your indulgence, I'll ask you to imagine all 4000 of us holding hands with our arms outstretched. In this friendly display of community, the Conger line (enjoy the pun!) would extend most of the way from Sydney Harbour Bridge to South Head, a trip that would take about 15 minutes on the ferry.
So, to each of you, thank you so much for your contribution. I hope that despite the tragedy of Covid-19, by this time next year, the Conger line will extend out of The Heads and depending upon your preference, either north towards the tropics or south into more temperate waters.
Anotado en domingo, 01 de agosto de 2021 a las 06:56 AM por markmcg markmcg | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario

New Zealand ferns identification guide - tree fern draft available

I've got ready a draft of the tree fern section for the identification guide to New Zealand ferns that I'm working on. It is downloadable as a 9 MB pdf from my Google drive at this link:


Constructive feedback welcome 🙂

@johnb-nz, @dhutch, @kaipatiki_naturewatch, @jacqui-nz, @dave_holland

Anotado en domingo, 01 de agosto de 2021 a las 06:43 AM por leonperrie leonperrie | 4 comentarios | Deja un comentario


Anotado en domingo, 01 de agosto de 2021 a las 06:00 AM por rajukidoor rajukidoor | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Bradinopyga Konkanensies in Kerala

Anotado en domingo, 01 de agosto de 2021 a las 05:55 AM por rajukidoor rajukidoor | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

ID practice and mass-ID tracking

I'm pretty new to this whole naturalist thing and am still learning how to ID most things. I find myself using iNat as a learning tool, particularly ID'ing other people's observations. At times I will choose a species I'm interested in at random, learn how to ID it, then mass-ID observations. Not only is this good practice, but it's a way to contribute to the community as well! I'll use this post to keep track of the species I've done this with, maybe with a few notes on things I've noticed about them. These will mostly be lepidoptera btw! c:


7/31/2021: Gray Hairstreak (tiny bois, blue-grey, white/black dotted lines sometimes + orange, orange/black ●) -shaped markings )

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 11:40 PM por effervescentdream effervescentdream | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Forearm flags and caudal flags in lynx-like felids

Lynx-like felids comprise four species of Lynx, the serval (Leptailurus serval, see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iBUJrdKG9jc and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aKeBUIvfnAw), the African golden cat (Caracal aurata, see https://www.davidmillswildlife.com/african-golden-cats and http://www.catsg.org/index.php?id=106 and https://news.mongabay.com/2015/08/feline-unseen-the-african-golden-cat/) and the caracal (Caracal caracal, https://www.biolib.cz/en/image/id175286/ and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEQjsh934vc).

All are medium-size (about 10 kg) for felids, with relatively short tails (e.g. see https://www.clawantlerhide.com/tails/Bobcat%20Tails and https://www.clawantlerhide.com/tails/Bobcat%20Tails). The African golden cat, caracal, bobcat (Lynx rufus) and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) are dietary generalists, whereas the serval, Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) specialise on rodents or lagomorphs.

Lynx-like felids are surprisingly inconsistent in two aspects of conspicuous colouration, namely forearm flags and caudal flags.

The forearm flag is a conspicuously dark-and-pale feature on the inner surface of the foreleg, the ostensible function of which is to remind would-be attackers of the hazard of the claws. This is analogous with the way the fang-baring expression of the caracal is accentuated by bold facial colouration (see my Post of July 24, 2021).

The forearm flag is incongruous with the camouflage colouration of the legs and torso, but is normally hidden by its low, inner position on the figure. It is activated in defensive postures, by bracing or slapping the foreleg forward to reveal the bold pattern - as seen in action here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KMFO2n6H6XU and https://www.earthtouchnews.com/natural-world/animal-behaviour/cat-fight-serval-holds-its-own-in-a-showdown-with-a-cheetah/ and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=96_Fbhg9oBE.

The caudal flag is a conspicuously dark-and-pale feature on the tail, activated by the lifting of the tail while walking or standing. The adaptive value of this signal is unknown.

Only the bobcat and the serval possess forearm flags. All of the species of Lynx possess caudal flags; by contrast the remaining species have undemonstrative tails. And, to make the picture even less consistent, the caudal flag is questionable in the Canada lynx because its tail is so short that it hardly remains conspicuous.

Bobcat forearm flag: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/Bobcat_photo.jpg and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/52408718 and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bobcat#/media/File:Calero_Creek_Trail_Bobcat.jpg and https://dirzolab.stanford.edu/research/assessing-demography-and-genetic-variation-in-bobcat-lynx-rufus-using-non-invasive-dna-analysis-and-comparing-with-population-size-estimates-obtained-by-camera-trapping-in-jasper-ridge-biological-pr/ and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bobcat#/media/File:Bobbie_2010_2.jpg

Serval forearm flag: https://i.redd.it/eqy0dvtzt1231.jpg and https://live.staticflickr.com/7146/6442193527_bf0b603898_b.jpg and https://www.flickr.com/photos/nostri-imago/3425081077 and https://www.africansafaris.co.nz/blog/the-super-sleek-serval/ and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/40300206

The African golden cat is unusually variable in colouration, but even its most graphic pattern on the inner foreleg fails to qualify as a forearm flag: https://www.flickr.com/photos/pantheracats/6046710834.

Bobcat caudal flag: https://www.mendonomasightings.com/2014/05/21/a-confident-bobcat-as-photographed-by-thom-matson/ and https://www.facebook.com/newscentermaine/photos/a.97048189612/10155342593774613/ and https://www.mercurynews.com/2016/11/29/was-that-a-bobcat-in-antioch/

Iberian lynx caudal flag: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/oct/25/the-lynx-effect-iberian-cat-claws-its-way-back-from-brink-of-extinction and https://theeuropeannaturetrust.com/animal-profile-iberian-lynx/ and https://www.earth.com/news/iberian-lynx-resurrection/ and https://www.photo-logistics.com/listings/hide-of-iberian-lynx-in-andujar/ and https://www.wisebirding.co.uk/southern-spain-iberian-lynx-eagles-cranes/

Eurasian lynx caudal flag: https://www.facebook.com/lynxuktrust/photos/a.451014284948269/870742009642159/ and https://www.coniferousforest.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Eurasian-Lynx-Pictures.jpg and https://www.123rf.com/photo_105736894_eurasian-lynx-showing-teeths-in-forest-at-summer.html and https://www.agefotostock.com/age/en/details-photo/eurasian-lynx-lynx-lynx-male-in-summer-germany-saxony/BWI-BS348257

Canada lynx, which only marginally qualifies for a caudal flag: https://www.naturepl.com/stock-photo-canada-lynx-nature-image00641562.html and https://www.facebook.com/101977034910391/photos/a.101979591576802/101978654910229 and https://www.agefotostock.com/age/en/details-photo/canada-lynx-lynx-canadensis-canada-alaska-n-usa/AAM-AAES67410 and https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=%22canada+lynx%22&asset_id=386546544 and https://www.joelsartore.com/wp-content/uploads/stock/ANI019/ANI019-00313.jpg and https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/animal-facts-canada-lynx and https://twitter.com/bigcatswildlife/status/1134046151563341824 and https://www.nature.ca/notebooks/english/lynx_p4.htm

The following is unusual in showing the tail of the caracal raised. However, it is being swung rather than held upright: https://www.goodfon.com/download/rys-karakal-priroda-poza-progulka-boke-fon-poliana-trava-sve/2000x1333/. Ditto for the serval: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/76653774. However, I am puzzled by the following photo: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67697166.

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 10:12 PM por milewski milewski | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario
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Full Project Details

Read more about this project by visiting https://sites.google.com/view/foraynl-2021-fungi-series/lichen-grazing.

Instructions are also downloadable as a PDF for printing and sharing.

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 09:38 PM por saralizj saralizj | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Final weekend for the Colorado Headwaters Nature Project 2021!

Wow! Thanks for all of your submissions! As we enter the last weekend of the count, please keep those amazing observations coming!

Totals so far for the 2021 count:
1535 observations
434 species
214 observers

A special thanks to our top 5 contributors so far:
1) courtneygrove
2) treelovinghuman
3) mattmsa
4) connie43
5) hannahfloyd_naturalist

Greater Fritillaries (Genus Speyeria) observed by floydted

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 05:45 PM por hollyglick hollyglick | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Project Kickoff!

Attention all Richmond residents! My name is Silas Eckhardt, aka Polistescarnifex. I am starting a few projects to keep tabs on the organisms that other users are observing in Richmond, Henrico county, and Chesterfield county.

They are:
Insects, Birds, etc of Richmond, VA (Umbrella Project):

Insects (and Spiders) of Richmond, VA: https://inaturalist.ca/projects/insects-and-spiders-of-richmond-va

Birds of Richmond, VA: https://inaturalist.ca/projects/birds-of-richmond-va

Reptiles and Amphibians of Richmond, VA:

Plants, Wildflowers, and Fungi, of Richmond, VA:

Mammals of Richmond, VA: https://inaturalist.ca/projects/mammals-of-richmond-va

If anyone, preferably a Richmond resident, or a person who travels frequently to Richmond, Henrico, or Chesterfield, would like to become a member, please contact me by replying to this post.

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 04:17 PM por polistescarnifex polistescarnifex | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Third day of the NCC Bioblitz - Fungi, Lichens and Mosses

Today's highlighted organisms in the NCC bioblitz are Fungi, Lichens and Mosses. This group includes a huge variety of organisms, most of which we know very little about. As the organisms are generally on the small side, getting up close and personal so that the identifiers can see very small details is really helpful. Here's a link to the guide that BC naturalists prepared to help observers new to nature photography and iNaturalist.

Like our leafminers and gall makers from yesterday, fungi (and lichens) are specialists. Identifiers need to know where you found them. For those species that are growing on other organisms (like those woody plants you are still hunting for) which plant is hosting the fungi can separate one species from another. If you find any of the plum family in your travels, then you probably also have found Black Knot - a fungus that only grows on these woody plants.

This fungus is a good organism found in Manitoba for new identifiers to learn. It is quite distinctive and though you might previously not have known its name, you have probably already noticed it on your outings.

Here's how to get started....

  1. Click on the Identify link at the top of the web page.
  2. Type 'Black Knot' into the Search Species box and then pick Black Knot from the options in the drop down - at this point all the little pictures should switch to show observations that have a single id of Black Knot already.
  3. Type 'Manitoba" where the box says 'Canada' and pick Manitoba, CA province from the list - now you will have a list of picture of all the observations from Manitoba that have a single id of Black Knot
  4. Look at each observation to see if you recognize Black Knot fungus in the images supplied - you can click on the square to see the images full size - or even use the view link to see the observation on its own page.
  5. If you agree, then click Agree - If you don't agree or you are not sure, you don't need to do anything, just go to the next image

Now if when you go looking for unidentified pictures of Black Knot, there are none in the list - you can always come back later. There will be more tomorrow.

It is important to pace yourself when contributing identifications. As soon as you start to feel grumpy or overwhelmed, it is time to stop and do something else for a while. As my grandmother would say, 'Rome wasn't built in a day."

Here's another resource on identification from the iNaturalist resources page.

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 03:29 PM por marykrieger marykrieger | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Why I don't like this website

All it takes is one person to reveal a trail, road or area, and then it attracts more and more until the trail gets over run by hikers and observers. New trails eventually stem off of that trail, one thing leads to another and before you know it, we are living in a city.

You think I am exaggerating? Try living in the same area your whole life and watch it happen. I've experienced at a good chunk of this process. Then future generations don't even know how nice it was because everyone is accustomed to this degraded state and new normal. Despite all the great things that come with keeping track of nature, this kind of stuff also adds up over time and has negative consequences. Then I wonder what good is keeping track of biodiversity and invasive species if you are just inviting more people into an area to trample and potentially destroy it both directly with walking, accidental and intentional littering and moving there and indirectly with car miles driven and CO2 emissions. Do the pros outweigh the cons? I used to think that they slightly did, but over the past several years I think the cons in all this stuff are outweighing the pros.

Yes you can't stop change, but you also have to be wake up, be observant and acknowledge the downward direction human society is taking us in overall across the board. A lot more needs to be done to bring about ethics and cultural change to catch up with this technology, the greed, the selfishness, the ignorance, the lack of communication and the divisions going on in the world.

Be smart about technology and consider others, other life, and indirect consequences of your actions in all things.

This set of observations is from one person on one day. This person isn't the only one that has marked observations along this trail but it is a good example of what can happen, does happen and is happening. How many of you use INaturalist to find places to go or find out where and why so many others are going to specific places? I know I do. That was the main reason I originally signed up to this website. I've never really needed people to tell me where trails are. My sense of adventure is greater than that. However, I must keep track of why my area is degrading so much and what is going on around me. Among many negative things technology is doing, it is killing peoples sense of adventure, spirit, strength, intelligence and boldness. But that's another topic that would need to be explored separately with references and supporting statements.

If embedded image doesn't work here is link. https://cdn.discordapp.com/attachments/843498711116021760/871055819976872016/unknown.png

For those who disagree with me, hopefully you never have to experience what I have to come to my perspective and understanding. Or maybe you should so learn and put a stop to it. The sad thing is, no one really cares or takes action until they personally experience something and when it comes to nature, the climate, or personal health problems, by the time they experience it, it's too late.

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 02:43 PM por ipomopsis ipomopsis | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Funga chilena alcanzó las 10000 observaciones!

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 02:03 PM por crriquelme2 crriquelme2 | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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PhyscoHunt 2021 summary: what have we learned so far?

Dear PhyscoHunters,

Starting in 2018 we have requested your cooperation in our goblet moss hunt and finally we are ready to share some of the results and findings that you all have contributed to gather. During the past months, the members of the team at UCONN and Texas Tech have been receiving your samples, vouchered them, cultured the spores when possible, and compared their genetic variation to determine their ancestry. Let us begin by emphasizing that the contribution of many iNaturalist users and the members of the PhyscoHunt initiative have made a difference. Your participation has increased the amount and the diversity of the data we have analyzed and we are sincerely thankful for your time!

Quick background recap

Our original aim with this project was to identify genetic variation within the goblet moss, Physcomitrium pyriforme in North America an Europe and, in particular, whether polyploidization (shifts in genome size) played an important role in the origin and diversification of this moss. We chose it as a model organism because moss evolution is relatively little known in the broader context of plant science, and a strong influence in polyploidization was suspected. The main questions we were posing, however, are not only relevant to a tiny moss, but they also enrich our general knowledge on how plants (all of them, including the tiny ones) evolve. Physcomitrium has as a couple of extra advantages: it can be cultured in lab conditions, so even with a small sample of viable spores, we can, potentially, produce a large amount of tissue to generate genomic libraries. The last final advantage of this choice is its wide range and collection easiness, particularly in Eastern North America. That's why we asked for your help!

Your contributions

PhyscoHunt was active mostly from 2018 to 2020 (although we are still happy to receive Pacific or European samples!). During this period of time more than a hundred iNaturalist profiles joined the project to stay in touch and receive updates. We are delighted to see that enthusiasm for a tiny moss! We monitored all the new Physcomitrium observations that popped up, especially during spring time of the past seasons, and tried to contact the user that had found goblet moss. If you are reading this, chances are that we requested your help after we saw one of these observations.

Overview of the PhyscoHunt sample gathering figures

All in all, we attempted to contact the observers of over 800 Physco observations, corresponding to a total of 279 iNat profiles. We received an answer from 130 of these profiles, and for many of them, this was the beginning of the hunt. Sometimes the collection of the sample was not possible, but often our most committed Physcohunters would return to the right location, monitor the colonies until the capsules were ripe, or look further for new samples in the whereabouts of the location.

Our lab at UCONN received about 120 Physcomitrium samples directly from you. Every single sample that we received (even if we could not culture their spores) has become a scientific specimen of the CONN herbarium (publicly available for all researchers). This means it can always be used in future studies to investigate its morphological traits or re-extract genetic material. These vouchers will still be very useful in the imminent taxonomic studies.

The next step of the process was to recover some spores and culture them. Not all spores made it into this last step for different reasons. For example, we realized that sometimes capsules would open during shipment, and maybe you realized that we modified the flyer last year, precisely to take this into account. Once that the cultures had grown enough, they were sent to the team at Texas Tech to sequence up to 600 genes from each of the accessions. A total of 65 samples made it to this last step.

Results overview

Although we will not be sharing here all the details of our research yet, there are a couple of relevant outcomes that we wanted to post on the project blog. These results have been already communicated in a couple of virtual botanical conferences during the summer (BL2021 and Botany2021). We also think that, as iNaturalist users, you are mostly interested in knowing what have we learned about these organisms that you collected growing on your backyard (sometimes, quite literally).

One name, several species

One of the original hypotheses of the project has been validated by our results. There is a lot going on under the umbrella name "Physcomitrium pyriforme". It is definitely one of the easiest mosses to identify and spot, but it turns out that it is not just one moss. We have detected that in Eastern North America there are at least three distinct goblet moss species (haplotypes) coexisting. Up to date, they seem to be morphologically indistinguishable (these are called "cryptic species"), but the truth is that nobody in recent times has attempted to discriminate different species within this complex. Notably, Elizabeth Britton (1858-1934) already proposed a taxonomic treatment of North American goblet mosses splitting what today we call Physcomitrium pyriforme into several taxa. Her approach was ultimately abandoned, but maybe she was at least partially right. We will hopefully know sometime soon.

Coexistence in sympatry

One of the most intriguing implications of the results we are obtaining is that the three hidden (potentially cryptic) American goblet moss species do not show a strong geographic pattern. It seems that within the Eastern United States, the three of them are potentially present in your area, regardless of whether you are in Vermont, Ohio, or Alabama. This was definitely a possibility we expected, but perhaps not the most straightforward, since speciation events are often facilitated by geographic isolation. We cannot discard that the three species, although present in the same areas, show other type of ecological niche specialization (for example, microecological conditions) but we can't be sure yet. These lineages do not remain unchanged, we have detected that some degree of admixture is quite common, but still, the three lineages seem to have their own proper distinctiveness, same as different oak species hybridize, but they keep their own distinctiveness.

This maps show as circles the goblet moss specimens we have used in our study. The different colors (pink, orange, and green) represent the different haplotypes (potentially cryptic species) we detected. Circles with different colors represent samples that had some degree of mix of the different haplotypes. It seems that all haplotypes can be found across the latitudinal and longitudinal gradient of goblet moss distributions. There are areas with a lot of overlapped specimens and they always have the three haplotypes present. Remember that even if you can't see your location on this map, your sample is vouchered as a herbarium specimen. (Image prepared by Lindsay Williams)

A tangled family tree

As we said, polyploidy research was one of the targets of the project. The whole genus Physcomitrium has species with different genome sizes and chromosome numbers, suggesting that their genomes are not static. One of the sources of polyploidy is hybridization, which is extremely common in flowering plants, but an overlooked mechanism in mosses. Our research joins new discoveries from bryology that show that polyploidy might very well be a universal driving force of plant evolution, regardless their size and complexity. In particular, we have detected that several Physcomitrium species have a hybrid origin, and sometimes the parental lineage corresponds, or seems very close, to one of the Physcomitrium pyriforme lineages we mentioned above.

Further steps

We plan to continue our research with goblet mosses and try to resolve some of the pending questions. In particular, we need to verify whether the three cryptic species are indeed cryptic or whether they have some subtle but clear morphological characters that can be used to tell them apart. Also, our sampling did have a clear bias towards Eastern North America. Although Physcomitrium pyriforme mosses are present in Europe and Western North America, the amount of observations and samples coming from these areas is lower and we still need to determine how many (and which) genetic profiles are present there. It seems that goblet mosses will continue teaching us how these small plants evolve and diversify.

Once again, we are very thankful for your support and contribution to this project. We hope next time you spot Physcomitrium or other mosses you are more aware of the hidden diversity that surrounds us everywhere.

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 01:52 PM por rmedina rmedina | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Day 3 – July 31 // Jour 3 – 31 juillet

Theme of the Day: Fungi, Lichens and Mosses

Today we will be exploring the fascinating world of lichens, mosses, and fungi. These species are often overlooked due to their small size, however, their impact on our planet is much greater than we think. There are approximately 3,600 species of lichens and 1,170 species of mosses in North America. Did you know that sphagnum moss has three times the absorbing capacity of cotton and has antiseptic qualities making it an amazing substitute for bandages?

Want to learn more interesting facts? Register for our event here to help document the natural world, gain access to activity packages and resources, and contest opportunities.

Pro Tips:

  1. Mosses, lichens and fungi can grow on a variety of surfaces. Next time you go out to a natural space, take a closer look at the rock surfaces and tree bark for lichens and the forest floor for moss. Try to find as many different species as you can!
  2. When walking in forested areas, be aware of your surroundings and avoid trampling on vegetation. Stay on the trail and look for wet, shaded areas or fallen trees and decaying logs to find mosses, lichens and maybe even fungi!

    Thème du jour : les champignons, mousses et lichens

Aujourd’hui, nous allons explorer le monde fascinant des champignons, mousses et lichens. Souvent ignorés en raison de leur petite taille, ces organismes ont un impact beaucoup plus grand sur notre monde qu’on ne pourrait le croire. Environ 3 600 espèces de lichens et 1 170 espèces de mousses poussent en Amérique du Nord. Saviez-vous que la mousse de sphaigne est trois fois plus absorbante que le coton et a des propriétés antiseptiques, ce qui en fait une très bonne solution de rechange aux bandages?

Aimeriez-vous connaître d’autres faits intéressants? Inscrivez-vous à l’événement ici pour contribuer à documenter le monde naturel et avoir accès à des fiches d’activité, ressources et concours.

Trucs de pro :
  1. Les champignons, mousses et lichens peuvent pousser sur toutes sortes de surfaces. La prochaine fois que vous visitez un coin de nature, jetez un coup d’œil aux pierres et à l’écorce des arbres pour trouver des lichens, et scrutez le sol en quête de mousses. Essayez de trouver le plus grand nombre d’espèces possible!
  2. Lorsque vous marchez dans la nature, portez attention à ce qui vous entoure et évitez de piétiner la végétation. Restez sur les sentiers et ouvrez l’œil pour trouver des zones humides et ombragées ou des feuilles mortes et des troncs d’arbres en décomposition pour trouver des lichens, des mousses, et même des champignons!

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 01:21 PM por natureconservancycanada natureconservancycanada | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Not just walking in bogs!

Congrats to @bogwalker who has logged more than 500 observations of aquatic plants in Minnesota (the most observations to date!) Thanks for wading in and adding a suite of northern species and fantastic photos.

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 11:17 AM por mndnr-aquatic-plants mndnr-aquatic-plants | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Luce County MI-July 7-8, 2021

Coleophora trifolii - Large Clover Casebearer - Hodges#1388
Glauce pectenalaeella - Hodges#1766
Chionodes praeclarella - Hodges#2075
Plutella xylostella - Diamondback Moth - Hodges#2366
Pseudosciaphila duplex - Poplar Leafroller - Hodges#2769
Olethreutes astrologana - The Astronomer - Hodges#2837
Acleris curvalana - Blueberry Leaftier - Hodges#3504
Archips mortuana - Dusky-back leaf roller - Hodges#3649
Archips myricana - Hodges#3652
Aethes patricia - Hodges#3759
Parapoynx badiusalis - Chestnut-marked Pondweed Moth - Hodges#4761
Pyrausta nicalis - Hodges#5032
Crambus unistriatellus - Wide-stripe Grass-veneer - Hodges#5344
Crambus albellus - Small White Grass-veneer - Hodges#5361
Crambus saltuellus - Pasture Grass-veneer - Hodges#5363
Meroptera pravella - Hodges#5787
Dioryctria abietivorella - Fir Coneworm - Hodges#5841
Amblyptilia pica - Geranium Plume Moth - Hodges#6118
Protitame virginalis - Virgin Moth - Hodges#6270
Macaria evagaria - Drab Angle Moth - Hodges#6278
Macaria signaria - Pale-marked Angle - Hodges#6344
Protoboarmia porcelaria - Porcelain Gray - Hodges#6598
Biston betularia - Pepper & Salt Geometer - Hodges#6640
Caripeta divisata - Gray Spruce Looper - Hodges#6863
Idaea dimidiata - Single-dotted Wave - Hodges#7126
Scopula junctaria - Simple Wave - Hodges#7164
Eulithis serrataria - Serrated Eulithis - Hodges#7208
Hydriomena renunciata - Renounced Hydriomena - Hodges#7236
Sphinx poecila - Northern Apple Sphinx - Hodges#7810.1
Smerinthus cerisyi - One-eyed Sphinx - Hodges#7822
Pachysphinx modesta - Modest Sphinx - Hodges#7828
Clostera albosigma - Sigmoid Prominent - Hodges#7895
Peridea angulosa - Angulose Prominent - Hodges#7920
Pheosia rimosa - Black-rimmed Prominent - Hodges#7922
Gluphisia septentrionis - Common Gluphisia - Hodges#7931
Dasylophia thyatiroides - Gray-patched Prominent - Hodges#7958
Oligocentria semirufescens - Red-washed Prominent - Hodges#8012
Virbia aurantiaca - Orange Virbia - Hodges#8121
Spilosoma virginica - Virginian Tiger Moth - Hodges#8137
Dasychira plagiata - Northern Pine Tussock Moth - Hodges#8304
Syngrapha epigaea - Epigaea Looper - Hodges#8927
Panthea furcilla - Eastern Panthea - Hodges#9182
Acronicta insita - Large Gray Dagger - Hodges#9202
Acronicta innotata - Unmarked Dagger - Hodges#9207
Enargia infumata - Smoked Sallow - Hodges#9550
Hyppa contrasta - Hodges#9579
Cucullia florea - Gray hooded-owlet - Hodges#10197
Sideridis maryx - Maroonwing - Hodges#10268
Polia imbrifera - Cloudy Arches - Hodges#10276
Melanchra adjuncta - Hitched Arches - Hodges#10292
Mythimna unipuncta - Armyworm Moth - Hodges#10438
Euxoa tessellata - Tessellate Dart - Hodges#10805
Anicla infecta - Green Cutworm Moth - Hodges#10911
Xestia dolosa - Greater Black-letter Dart - Hodges#10942.1
Xestia badicollis - Northern Variable Dart - Hodges#10968
Xestia praevia - Praevia Dart - Hodges#10968.1
Cryptocala acadiensis - Catocaline Dart - Hodges#11012

Euphyes vestris - Dun Skipper - Hodges#4078
Colias interior - Pink-edged Sulphur - Hodges#4220
Limenitis arthemis - White Admiral/Red-spotted Purple - Hodges#4522

Monochamus scutellatus - White-spotted Sawyer

Temnostoma excentrica – Excentric Fly
Lucilia sericata - Common Green Bottle Fly

Megachile - Leafcutter and Resin Bee
Bombus fervidus - Golden Northern Bumble Bee
Vespula consobrina - Blackjacket

Dissosteira carolina - Carolina Grasshopper
Melanoplus bivittatus femoratus - Two-Striped Grasshopper

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 10:25 AM por dull2shinetoo dull2shinetoo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario


Sharing this post I made for the Australian mushroom hunters Facebook group.


These tips are intended as a guide rather than a rule, while we do try to answer all ID requests some are more easily recognisable than others and providing all the info you can will ensure you have the best chance of recieving an ID and a correct ID.

  1. Clear photos, don’t rush, get down and let your camera/phone focus, tap your finger on the mushroom (on phone screen) to focus your camera phone better.
  2. Take photos of the whole mushroom in the place it was found (in situ) a detailed pic of the cap and a side view, this shows where the mushroom is growing. Note the habitat, substrate the mushroom is growing from, close by tree species if you can. For example - mushroom found in dry sclerophyll forest, growing from soil, close to eucalyptus and acacia species, or mushroom growing directly from pine stump in mixed natural forest/habitat, or mushroom growing in suburban garden bed, amoungst wood debris and leaf litter.
  3. Pick the mushroom fully intact. This might mean digging the mushroom out but can be essential for some genus.
  4. Lay the mushroom down and photograph again, look around if there are more specimen, maybe there are some of different maturities and this can help in someone recognising the species. Line a couple up and photograph again. This also means you can get more than one ID feature in the one photo. Watch out for glare, You want to be in natural light but not direct sunlight if possible
  5. Take photos of some key features, close up of the gills/lamellae, stem/stipe, annulus or partial veil if present or annular zone, stem/stipe base, texture/ornamentation of the cap/pileus.
  6. Cut a cross section through the mushroom (through the cap and stem all the way to the base) pay attention to flesh colour, bruising reaction if any and photograph again. A cross section can really help show the true shape of the mushroom. Maybe the base is covered in dirt and you can’t tell that it is bulbous. You can also easily see the gill attachment.
  7. Something for scale, or a measurement. You can estimate the size of the cap and height or use something such as a coin or lighter. Knives can be handy but we don’t always know the length of your knife.

Bonus points - Smell, taste and staining reactions

It’s not always required but definitely handy to add these features to your ID checklist. Tasting mushrooms like Russula and Lactarius can quickly tell you something about the mushroom to help with ID. Smelling an Agaricus will also tell you something. Staining for boletes is almost essential.

Smell - take it easy, take gentle smells (if that makes sense 🤣), cut or damage the flesh/squash the stem, rub the cap, these actions can all provoke smells, even cooking or microwaving can be handy in the case of differentiating Agaricus. Smells to look for are sweet, almond/marzipan, anise, mushroomy, spicy/peppery, floral, foul/fishy or maybe it smells spermatic. Yes that is a describing smell used for some fungi

Taste - it’s perfectly safe to taste and spit any mushroom with one exception being Podostroma cornu-damae the fire coral - *I’m not certain if you will get a reaction from a taste test but it’s not one I would recommend.

Take a piece of mushroom in your mouth, chew and move around your tongue. Describe any taste, it could be mild, bitter, spicy/hot, acrid, fishy, plain/bland. It’s handy to have a bottle of water in the event of tasting a spicy Russula.

Staining (and exudation)- probably the most important when it comes to Agaricus and Boletes but certainly for others; the colour, rate of reaction and location of reaction can all help to distinguish between closely resembled species. Scratch or bruise the cap/pileus, press on pores for Boletes or cut/damage gills/lamellae (this may show a latex exuding from the cut gills, or a colour reaction) Cut a cross section, this is important and should be covered in an ID anyway but cut the mushroom lengthways through the middle of the cap and stem all the way to the base. In all cases it’s good to observe the staining over time, some may present later (up to ten minute) some may change ( in the case of some Boletes for example it may bruise blue first and end up grey or black or disappear completely back to flesh colour) some may be one colour in the cap and another in the stem. Pressing on the pores of some Boletes may yield you a blue reaction but also, pink or brown

I hope this helps and isn’t too long to read. Remember it’s ok to pick a mushroom for ID but please don’t pick baskets full if you are not sure and observe any local laws for example national parks are only accessible with permits. Wait for confirmation of ID and do your own research before consuming any wild mushroom.

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 10:06 AM por shane_marshall shane_marshall | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

7000 наблюдений

На последний июльский день пришлась дата выставления 7000 фотографии растения камчатской флоры.

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 10:05 AM por borisbolshakov borisbolshakov | 1 observación | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

7000 наблюдений

На последний июльский день пришлась дата выставления 7000 фотографии растения камчатской флоры.

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 10:04 AM por borisbolshakov borisbolshakov | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario
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Cockatoo Research Project 2019 Western Australian Museum

The major achievements of this project include:

  1. Reassessing the status of Baudin’s Cockatoo. Following our conservation advice to the
    Department of the Environment and Energy – Baudin’s Cockatoo had its status transferred from
    the Vulnerable category to the Endangered category in February 2018.

  2. Documenting and mapping the changing foraging ecology of many Forest red-tailed black
    Cockatoos in the northern Darling Range west onto the Swan Coastal Plain and east into the
    wheat belt. Over the past 20 years the foraging ecology of some populations in the northern
    Jarrah-Marri forest has changed with flocks that were once largely sedentary have now
    developed regular movements onto the Swan Coastal Plain and in some places established new
    roost sites and breeding sites. This movement has led to an erroneous impression in the Perth
    region that this subspecies is expanding its range and increasing in abundance. Furthermore, the
    altered foraging behaviour has led to changes in distribution and roosting patterns that appear to
    influence breeding success. In 2016 almost no Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo were recorded
    breeding at any of our study sites and no juveniles were recorded in the northern Jarrah forest or
    on the Swan Coastal Plain. This indicates that this population may be at greater risk than
    originally thought (see Johnstone, Kirkby and Sarti 2017).

  3. Identifying and monitoring Baudin’s Cockatoo breeding sites in northern Jarrah-Marri forest. Now
    a much better understanding of breeding sites, timing of breeding events and breeding biology in
    this area.

  4. Prioritising targeted surveys on southern Swan Coastal Plain (Perth-Peel region) to determine
    habitat use (study of food resources) by cockatoos especially Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos in
    roadside verges.

  5. Data generated from this program used by State and federal government agencies especially
    information on distribution, status, movements and important habitats to enable the
    conservation of critical areas.

  6. Analysing nest tree mortality. Monitoring nest hollows. The Jarrah-Marri forests of southwestern Western Australia occupy about 1.6 million hectares (Whitford and Williams 2001).
    Logging of these forests since the 1860s has preferentially removed the larger trees that are most
    likely to provide nesting hollows suitable for Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo and Baudin’s
    Cockatoo. Tree hollows tend to occur in mature, senescent and dead (stag) trees and the useful
    habitat life of these trees is limited by natural factors such as fire, decay, wind throw or storm
    damage and purposeful destruction by further clearing. Of the 53 trees revisited in 2018 that
    were located in the period 1992–2003, a total of 25 trees with nest hollows were lost completely
    and 4 nest hollows were lost through falling limbs and fire, but the tree was still standing giving
    an overall loss of 29 trees giving a loss rate of 54.7%. This highlights the fact that managing fire in
    a way that maintains habitat resources for hollow dependent cockatoos requires further detailed
    research on the impact of fire (both wildfire and control burns), but not the status quo.

  7. Identifying fire as major threat. Fire is obviously the major cause of tree fall of actual nest trees and
    of future or potential nest trees and hence the retention of the right type and number of hollowbearing trees is essential to prevent the rapid collapse of hollow-bearing trees in the Jarrah-Marri
    The continuing net loss of actual and potential nest trees by fire should be considered as a Key
    Threatening Process in the Jarrah-Marri forest.

  8. Evaluating differences in contact Calls. Early in 2015 we began to analyse the vocalisations of
    both Baudin’s and Carnaby’s Cockatoos. From these it was evident that Baudin’s Cockatoo has a
    much shorter contact call compared to Carnaby’s Cockatoo. Furthermore there are distinct
    differences between male and female contact calls of Baudin’s Cockatoo in contrast to the
    contact calls of Carnaby’s Cockatoo where both male and female contact calls are identical (see
    Contact Calls of Baudin’s Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii, R. E. Johnstone and T. Kirkby, 2015).
    This work has important implications in showing that Baudin’s Cockatoo and Carnaby’s Cockatoo
    are indeed separate species and must be managed as separate entities. As part of this project,
    further study on cockatoo vocalisations continued throughout 2018.

  9. Implementing broad scale surveys. Surveys over the past five years have highlighted the
    importance of: parts of the southern Swan Coastal Plain, Bindoon region, Wungong Catchment,
    Serpentine hills, Whicher Range area, Frankland National Park and Hyden region.
    10.Developing a food library, photographic library and audio library (including regional dialects) for
    all three species.
    11.Mapping the expansion of some super abundant native species e.g. Galah, Rainbow Lorikeet, and
    corellas into the south-west. These species compete for hollows and food with cockatoos.
    12.Publicising and raising awareness of the status and conservation needs of these birds through
    information sheets, scientific papers and seminars (see Figure 23).

  10. Development by Tony Kirkby of a pole camera for monitoring nest hollows. In 2012 he observed
    window cleaners using an 18 m pole to clean windows in the United Kingdom. We also
    developed a method of measuring nest hollow depth and width using the same poles.

  11. Baudin’s Cockatoo was named in 1832 by the famous English artist and poet Edward Lear in
  12. Unfortunately Lear’s painting gave no description, measurements or locality data and the
    whereabouts of the type (reference) specimen was a mystery, assumed lost.
    Lear’s illustration was assumed by cockatoo researchers to be the long-billed form, and looking
    at the drawing it appears that way. The other white-tail, Carnaby’s Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus
    latirostris, was described by Ivan Carnaby from WA in 1948 and it differed from Baudin’s in its
    short heavy bill and call. The “lost” specimen used by Lear was recently rediscovered in the
    National Museums Liverpool and to our amazement it was the short-billed Carnaby’s Cockatoo.
    This proved a dilemma as to how we could conserve the long-established names of baudinii for
    the long-billed Baudin’s Cockatoo and maintain latirostris as the valid name for Carnaby’s
    Cockatoo. The scientific solution was to have the holotype of baudinii Lear, set aside and
    replaced with a neotype of a specimen of Baudin’s Cockatoo so as not to destabilise longestablished names. A scientific paper was prepared for the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature
    that was published in September 2014.
    This highlights the value of collaborative research on an international level involving researchers
    in Australia, United Kingdom, France and the United States and also the value of museum
    specimens, both old and new, in resolving biodiversity questions.

To read the entire research project click on the link below.


Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 07:57 AM por kezzza4 kezzza4 | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Protective mimicry in the cheetah, part 4

Everyone knows that, among all the felids, the cheetah has the oddest colouration in infants; and that the best explanation so far is protective mimicry of the honey badger (Mellivora capensis, see https://cheetah.org/canada/2019/04/02/the-key-to-cheetah-cubs-survival/).

However, what has been widely overlooked is how caricaturised and chimaeric this resemblance is, and the implications for other, more subtle, features of colouration in the cheetah.

The colouration of infants of the cheetah (see https://www.shutterstock.com/nb/image-photo/cheetah-cub-clearing-park-fall-1690349212 and https://www.shutterstock.com/nb/image-photo/small-fluffy-cheetah-cub-standing-on-86857843 and https://fineartamerica.com/featured/2-serious-tiny-cheetah-cubs-caroline-ellis.html and https://www.wildsoulconservation.com/product/cheetah-cub-stalking-practice/ and https://www.unilad.co.uk/animals/adorable-cheetah-cubs-say-hello-to-the-world-as-they-take-their-first-steps/) resembles that of the honey badger in only one way: that the usual relationship between shading and countershading is inverted. Instead of the underparts being relatively pale to compensate for shading, it is the back that is pale. If such a crude resemblance works to intimidate would-be attackers, this is because a) this inversion is so powerfully aposematic that it outweighs any incongruities, and b) it is viewed at sufficient distance that only the overall impression counts.

The most obvious incongruity is seen in the head of infants of the cheetah, which remains so unlike the honey badger that the figure looks like a chimaera rather than a plausible example of integrated adaptive colouration.

To summarise this four-part series of Posts: the case for protective mimicry in the cheetah rests on the models being the honey badger for infants, and females of the lion for adults. The resemblance, although imprecise, works well enough to outweigh the obviously kitten-like face of infants and the obviously slender figure of adults. This effectiveness rests on artful caricature at distance of the following features in particular: in the case of infants, inverse countershading; and in the case of adults a) dark back-of-ear offset by pale side of neck, b) dark-and-pale tail-tip, c) whitish mouth, d) pale chest in sitting posture, and e) differentiation of the muzzle from the rest of the face.

With the above rationale in mind, do readers still see the following figures as categorically different and beyond confusion of identity, regardless of illumination or distance: https://fineartamerica.com/featured/sub-adult-cheetah-landscape-etienne-outram.html and https://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photos-kalahari-lion-kgalagadi-image15304738?

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 02:41 AM por milewski milewski | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Project Kickoff!

Please help map the biota of Fluvanna County. This is a new project started July 29, 2021. The species that has the most observations at the kickoff is the Eastern Tiger Swallowtail. This project is part of an umbrella project (https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/piedmont-counties-of-virginia) that includes of the counties in Virginia's Piedmont region. So far, the greatest participation has been in Prince William County. The main reason for this is the sheer number of people contributing data for the county. Let's see if we can increase observations in Fluvanna County. Spread the word!

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 12:05 AM por birderkellyk birderkellyk | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Project Kickoff!

Please help map the biota of Albermarle and Charlottesville. This is a new project started July 29, 2021. The species that has the most observations at the kickoff is the Eastern Tiger Swallowtail. This project is part of an umbrella project (https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/piedmont-counties-of-virginia) that includes of the counties in Virginia's Piedmont region. So far, the greatest participation has been in Prince William County. The main reason for this is the sheer number of people contributing data for the county. Let's see if we can increase observations in the area. Spread the word!

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 12:04 AM por birderkellyk birderkellyk | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario

Project Kickoff!

Please help map the biota of Loudoun County. This is a new project started July 29, 2021. The species that has the most observations at the kickoff is the Virginia Spring Beauty. This project is part of an umbrella project (https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/piedmont-counties-of-virginia) that includes of the counties in Virginia's Piedmont region. So far, the greatest participation has been in Prince William County. The main reason for this is the sheer number of people contributing data for the county. Let's see if we can increase observations in Loudoun County. Currently, the county is second place. Spread the word!

Anotado en sábado, 31 de julio de 2021 a las 12:02 AM por birderkellyk birderkellyk | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario