Diario del proyecto Phylica - Hardleaves - of southern Africa

25 de marzo de 2023

Pubescens versus Plumosa

This species pair seems to cause quite a lot of confusion, and in many observations it is not resolved.

On the Peninsula they key as follows:

  1. Petals lanceolate, oblanceolate, ovate or lanceolate-ovate, or consisting of an ellipitic or linear blade and basal claw, never hood-shaped in the upper part. Calyx tube with hairs within: P. pubescens
    1' Petals with upper part hood-shaped; bracts leaf-like, twice as long as the flowers: P. plumosa

So at least on the Peninsula, a quick look at the flowers will sort the issue. But who looks at the flowers?

  • plumosa: moderately branched about 300mm tall;
  • pubescens: moderatel branced, usually up to 1.2m tall;

  • plumosa: branchets with long and short grey or tawny hairs;
  • pubescens: branches with silky grey or buff hairs on the upper parts;

  • plumosa: leaves 10-15mm long, blade linear-lanceolate, base somewhat cordate, margins very strongly revolute, minutely tuberculate, pilose with long buff hairs when young;
  • pubescens: leaves 25-35mm long, blade linear-lanceolate, base rounded, margins revolute - covering half the lower face, minutely tuberculate, pilose above when young;

  • plumosa: flower spikes 20-30mm long, dense, rotund or oblong;
  • pubescens: flowerheads 40-50mm wide, including the bracts, solitary;

  • plumosa: floral bracts leaflike, villous on both faces with grey or buff hairs;
  • pubescens: bracts 20-30mm long, linear lanceolate, with grey of buff hairs;

  • plumosa: flowers 5mm long, with reflexed hairs outside, Petal lobes ovate, hooded, inserted at mouth of tube; May-Aug.
  • pubescens: flowers 5-9mm long, with long ascending grey hairs outside. Petal lobes ovate to lanceolate-ovate, sometimes wanting, inserted in upper half of calyx tube; May-Aug.

On the Peninsula,

  • plumosa: occ. on lower slopes, TM to Constantiaberg - var squarrosa: frequent on lower slopes and flats east side.
  • pubescens: occ. on lower eastern slopes, TM to Constantiaberg

  • plumosa var squarrosa: stems taller and stouter; Flowerheads larger, spherical; flowers 6-8mm long; May-Jul.
Publicado el 25 de marzo de 2023 a las 04:40 PM por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Subspecific taxa of Phylica ericoides

Phylica ericoides is a much-branched, compact shrub to 600mm. Branches slender, sparsely covered with short, fine, grey hairs. Leaves lanceolate to linear, obtuse or nearly acute, and rounded or heart-shaped at the base, 5-8 mm long, alternate, simple with a short petiole, rolled margins, hairless above margin and midrib sparsely hairy when young, underside.with short, fine grey hairs.

The flowers are very small, 1.5-2 mm long, tightly packed into 4-7 mm wide rounded heads (capitula) which are clustered or solitary at the tips of the branches. Flowers are produced at any time of the year, ad have a strong honey scent.

The fruit is a 4 mm long, obovate, hairless purple-brown capsule which splits explosively to release smooth seeds with a basal aril, and are dispersed and buried by ants.

Phylica ericoides has five varieties:

  • var. ericoides: as above
  • var. montana: (Sir Lowy's Pass) with slender upper branches; longer, more linear leaves; and the whole plant is about two thirds of the size of var. ericoides.
  • var. muirii: (Riversdale) with plants smaller (up to 350mm), with slender pubescent branchlets, and smaller leaves (3-5 mm).
  • var. pauciflora: (Bredasdorp) with plants to 400mm tall, very slender branches and small (5 mm long) linear leaves, and smaller flowerheads (2.5-3 mm wide) and smaller (1.5-1.75 mm long) flowers.
  • var. zeyheri: (Caledon) with leaves rounded at the base, a sharp apex and the larger flowers (2-2.5 mm long).

from: https://pza.sanbi.org/phylica-ericoides

Publicado el 25 de marzo de 2023 a las 09:00 AM por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Phylica status March 2023

Phylica status March 2023

10,089 observations by 1,527 observers
118 species (& Trichocephalus: 1 sp with 1,270 observations)
16,537 identifications by 372 identifiers.

4,940 observations (49%) Research Grade
2,559 observations (26%) only ID to genus: help get them to species here
2,520 observations (25%) at species level needing ID: help confirm them here

Top Species (over 50 observations)

1,270 Trichocephalus stipularis Dogsface
955 Phylica ericoides Heath Hardleaf
764 Phylica buxifolia Box Hardleaf
726 Phylica pubescens Featherhead Hardleaf

493 Phylica imberbis Hairy Hardleaf
490 Phylica plumosa Feathery Hardleaf
471 Phylica purpurea Purple Hardleaf
414 Phylica axillaris Axil Hardleaf

226 Phylica cephalantha Top Hardleaf
200 Phylica curvifolia Tripling Hardleaf
188 Phylica oleifolia Olive Hardleaf
154 Phylica pinea Pine Hardleaf

115 Phylica dioica Buff Hardleaf
115 Phylica paniculata Northern Hardleaf
110 Phylica strigulosa Swartland Hardleaf
109 Phylica strigosa Stringy Hardleaf
103 Phylica lasiocarpa Shaggyseed Hardleaf

98 Phylica gnidioides Marshmallow Hardleaf
87 Phylica lachneaeoides Pinkstar Hardleaf
77 Phylica rigidifolia Rigid Hardleaf
76 Phylica litoralis Beach Hardleaf
72 Phylica debilis Heartleaf Hardleaf

65 Phylica parviflora Mini Hardleaf
64 Phylica velutina Fluffy Hardleaf
59 Phylica karroica Karoo Hardleaf
59 Phylica lanata Woolly Hardleaf
54 Phylica dodii Edelweiss Hardleaf

Top Observers (over 100 observations)

1 tonyrebelo 1,112
2 nicky 440
3 knysna_wildflowers 336
4 botaneek 243
5 vynbos 159
6 petrabroddle 155
7 erickmunro 138
8 outramps-tanniedi 135
9 evieb 121
10 sandraf 120
11 ren_hoekstra 108
12 c_brunke 103

Top Species Observers (over 20 species)

1 botaneek 78
2 knysna_wildflowers 77
3 tonyrebelo 49
4 nicky 40
5 mr_fab 37
6 ren_hoekstra 34
7 sandraf 28
8 felix_riegel 24
9 outramps-tanniedi 22

Top Identifiers (over 200 observations)

1 knysna_wildflowers 2,661
2 botaneek 669
3 venturefoth 557
4 tonyrebelo 555
5 dianastuder 506
6 jeremygilmore 422
7 cmerry 231
8 erickmunro 224

Publicado el 25 de marzo de 2023 a las 08:47 AM por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Phylogeny of Phylica

Phylogenetic analysis of Phylica L. (Rhamnaceae) with an emphasis on island species: evidence from plastid trnL-F and nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ribosomal) DNA sequences
James E. Richardson, Frans M. Weitz, Michael F. Fay, Quentin C. B. Cronk, H. Peter Linder, Gail Reeves, Mark W. Chase 2001 Taxon 50: 405–427. https://doi.org/10.2307/1223889

The relationships of the island species of Phylica and other genera in Phyliceae (Rhamnaceae) were evaluated using sequences for the plastid trnL intron, the trnL-F intergenic spacer and the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Both regions provided nearly identical phylogenetic patterns, so they were analysed as a combined matrix. The genera Nesiota and Noltea were found to be palaeoendemic species within the context of the tribe. The island species of Phylica formed a monophyletic group together with the widespread mainland species, P. paniculata. The plesiomorphic, generalist morphology of this group contrasts with the derived morphological characteristics of the majority of mainland species. However, the group occupies a derived position in the phylogenetic trees, thus indicating either a reversal or more likely the retention of these primitive traits.


  • For Phylica to be monophyletic, either Nesiota should be placed in Phylica, or P. stipularis should be placed in a separate genus: Trichocephalus
  • Phylica originated on the African mainland about 2Mya and all the island species (P. arborea, P. polifolia, P. nitida and P. emirnensis) form a strongly supported clade which includes the widespread mainland P. paniculata (a montane, riverine sp).
Publicado el 25 de marzo de 2023 a las 08:24 AM por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario